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Table 2 Sleep quality in users and non-users of benzodiazepines in Australian residential aged care facilities. (Based on 6-item questionnaire and derived sleep domain scores)

From: The association between benzodiazepine use and sleep quality in residential aged care facilities: a cross-sectional study

  All residents (n = 383) Non-Benzodiazepine user (n = 204) Benzodiazepine user(n = 179) P
Q1: SLEEP QUALITY: Over the past month rate the quality of your night time sleep?
 Very poor 10 3 1.5% 7 3.9% 0.22a
 Poor 44 19 9.3% 25 14.0%
 Okay 96 56 27.5% 40 22.3%
 Good 162 84 41.2% 78 43.6%
 Very good 72 43 21.1% 29 16.2%
Q2: SLEEP DURATION: How much sleep do you get each night?
  < 4h 7 3 1.5% 4 2.2% 0.06a
 4-6h 89 43 21.1% 46 25.7%
 6-8h 180 93 45.6% 87 48.6%
 6-10h 84 49 24.0% 35 19.6%
  > 10h 22 15 7.4% 7 3.9%
Q3: RESTFUL SLEEP: How restless or restful is your sleep as a rule?
 Very restless 10 4 2.0% 6 3.4% 0.16a
 Restless 62 30 14.7% 32 17.9%
 Not very 60 29 14.2% 31 17.3%
 Restful 191 107 52.5% 84 46.9%
 Very restful 60 34 16.7% 26 14.5%
Q4: WAKING CONDITION: How clear headed do you feel when you wake in the morning?
 Alert 184 104 51.0% 80 44.7% 0.58a
 Slightly drowsy 151 71 34.8% 80 44.7%
 Fairly drowsy 33 22 10.8% 11 6.1%
 Very drowsy 15 8 3.9% 7 3.9%
Q5: NAPPING FREQUENCY: How regularly do you sleep, nap, or lie down during the day?
 Nearly every day 171 87 42.6% 84 46.9% 0.47a
 A few times a week 52 30 14.7% 22 12.3%
 Once or twice a week 47 21 10.3% 26 14.5%
 Once or twice a month 27 21 10.3% 6 3.4%
 Never or hardly ever 86 45 22.1% 41 22.9%
Q6: NAPPING DURATION: In general how much sleep would you say you get on these days? 0.52a
 None 73 39 19.1% 34 19.0%
 Less than 1/2h 109 54 26.5% 55 30.7%
 1/2 to 1h 129 70 34.3% 59 33.0%
 1 to 2h 54 32 15.7% 22 12.3%
 More than 2h 18 9 4.4% 9 5.0%
SLEEP QUALITY DOMAINS
 Night-time Sleep Quality Score (Category)
  Higher 202 113 55.4% 89 49.7% 0.26a
  Lower 181 91 44.4% 90 50.6%
  Night-time Sleep Quality Score (Mean) 10.29 (2.45) 10.52 (2.37) 10.02 (2.52) 0.05b
Day-time Drowsiness (Category)
 Alert 183 103 50.5% 80 44.7% 0.26c
 Drowsy 200 101 49.5% 99 55.3%
Napping Score (Category)
  < 3.5h/week 256 137 67.2% 119 66.5% 0.82a
  ≥ 3.5h/week 127 67 32.8% 60 33.5%
 Napping Score (Mean) 3.02 3.01   3.03   0.97b
  1. a.Mann-Whitney U test
  2. b.Student’s t-test
  3. c.Pearson’s chi-square tes