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Table 3 Proportions of health service users and odds ratios for self-reported hearing difficulty explaining use of health services

From: Hearing loss and use of health services: a population-based cross-sectional study among Finnish older adults

  Age-sex adjusted proportions % Multivariable adjusted odds ratio
no HD, N = 1125 HD, N = 837 p OR 95 % CI p
Physician visits, all (last 12 months) 24/55/22a 20/55/26 a .020 1.2c 1.0;1.5 .072
Physician visits, not related to hearing loss (last 12 months) 24/55/21 a 21/55/24 a .112 1.1c 0.9;1.4 .291
Nurse visits (last 12 months) 56/26/18 b 53/27/20 b .109 1.1 c 0.9;1.4 .280
Health examination (last 5 years) 40 40 .736 1.1 0.9;1.3 .655
Mental health service (last 12 months) 1.7 3.1 .058 2.1 1.2;3.5 .025
Physical therapy (last 12 months)
 Men 8.8 12 .145 1.3d 0.8;2.1 .298
 Women 14 14 .826 1.1d 0.8;1.5 .647
Health promotion group (last 5 years) 22 22 .728 0.9c 0.7;1.1 .518
Vision test (last 5 years) 65 65 .979 1.0e 0.8;1.2 .709
Hearing test (last 5 years) 19 29 <.001 1.8 1.4;2.3 <.001
Mammography (women <70 year, last 5 years) 64 64 .946 1.1f 0.6;2.0 .870
PSA test (men, last 5 years) 28 28 .950 0.9g 0.7;1.2 .608
Unmet health care needs 21 32 <.001 1.7 1.4;2.1 <.001
  1. Results are given separately for men and women where interaction of sex is significant. Only models that include both sexes are adjusted for sex. All multivariable adjusted models are controlled for age, mother tongue, living alone, income and education
  2. HD self-reported hearing difficulty, OR odds ratio
  3. aProportions for 0/1–4/5+ visits
  4. bProportions for 0/1–5/6+ visits
  5. cModel additionally adjusted for diseases, smoking, alcohol use, and BMI
  6. dModel additionally adjusted for cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and arthritis
  7. eModel additionally adjusted for far vision, diabetes and stroke
  8. fModel additionally adjusted for breast cancer
  9. gModel additionally adjusted for prostate cancer