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Table 2 Proportions of health service users and odds ratios for hearing loss explaining use of health services

From: Hearing loss and use of health services: a population-based cross-sectional study among Finnish older adults

  Age-sex adjusted proportion % Multivariable adjusted odds ratio
All no HL, N = 1352 HL, N = 328 p for no HL vs. HL OR 95 % CI p
Physician visits, all (last 12 months), n = 1925
 Men 25/52/22a 25/54/21a 17/52/31a .020 1.3c 0.8;2.2 .328
 Women 19/57/24a 18/58/24a 17/58/26a .695 1.0c 0.7;1.3 .882
Physician visits, not related to hearing loss (last 12 months), n = 1914 22/55/22a 21/57/22a 19/56/24a .257 1.0c 0.7;1.3 .981
Nurse visits (last 12 months), n = 1980 55/26/19b 55/27/18b 51/29/20b .291 1.2c 0.9;1.7 .261
Health examination (last 5 years), n = 2006 41 44 40 .382 0.7 0.5;1.1 .201
Mental health service (last 12 months), n = 1907 2.2 2.0 4.4 .059 3.2 1.3;7.9 .034
Physical therapy (last 12 months), n = 1909
 Men 10 9.9 15 .172 2.0d 1.0;3.9 .088
 Women 14 15 12 .298 0.9d 0.5;1.5 .744
Health promotion group (last 5 years), n = 1677 22 23 16 .009 0.8c 0.6;1.2 .385
Vision test (last 5 years), n = 1882 64 67 62 .153 0.7e 0.5;1.0 .085
Hearing test (last 5 years), n = 1870
 Men 32 29 46 .003 1.1 0.6;2.0 .759
 Women 17 13 42 <.001 3.4 2.3;5.2 <.001
Mammography (women <70 year, last 5 years), n = 259 63 64 65 .973 1.7f 0.3;10.5 .624
PSA test (men, last 5 years), n = 628 28 29 25 .485 1.0g 0.5;1.8 .896
Unmet health care needs, n = 1929 26 26 32 .100 1.3 0.9;1.7 .232
  1. Results are given separately for men and women where interaction of sex is significant
  2. Only models that include both sexes are adjusted for sex. All multivariable adjusted models are controlled for age, mother tongue, living alone, income, education, and hearing aid use
  3. HL hearing loss, better ear hearing threshold level 0.5–2 kHz > 40 dB; OR odds ratio
  4. aProportions for 0/1–4/5+ visits
  5. bProportions for 0/1–5/6+ visits
  6. cModel additionally adjusted for diseases, smoking, alcohol use, and BMI
  7. dModel additionally adjusted for cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and arthritis
  8. eModel additionally adjusted for far vision, diabetes and stroke
  9. fModel additionally adjusted for breast cancer
  10. gModel additionally adjusted for prostate cancer