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Table 4 Proportion of survivors that recover their pre-hip fracture levels of activity, participation or health outcomes

From: A critical review of the long-term disability outcomes following hip fracture

Study Outcome measure Pre-fracture residence Surgical cohort 3–4 months 6 months 1 year 2 years
Activity – Mobility
 Bentler 2009 [14] Mobility activities without difficultye NR N     47 %
 Crotty 2000 [49] Level of ambulationb Community Y 69 %    
  LTC Y 58 %
 Holt 2008 [62] Walk unaided and unaccompanied Mixed Y     
Ages 75–89    22 %
Ages ≥95 2 %
 Keene 1993 [41] Walk unaided Mixed N    40 %  
 Koval 1998 [44]g Ambulatory ability Community Y 22 % 38 % 47 %  
 Shah 2001 [47]g Ambulation independence Community Y    44 %  
 Magaziner 2000 [43] Walk 3 m without assistancea, d Community N    60 % 63 %
 Norton 2000 [22] Retain community mobilityd Mixed U     54 %
 Osnes 2004[25] Walking independencef Mixed U    44 %  
 Pereira 2010 [39] Remain stable on BOASd      55 %  
 Vochteloo 2013 [37] Mobility Mixed Y 46 %   48 %  
Mobility without aid   Y 27 % 40 %
Mobility with aid  Y 58 % 58 %
Activity – Composite measure of Basic ADLs
 Bentler 2009 [14] ADLs without difficultye NR N     49 %
 Beaupre 2005 [50]h ADL level (MBI) Mixed Y 34 % 42 %  
 Beaupre 2007 [48]h ADL level (MBI) Community Y   71 %   
  LTC Y 22 %
 Givens 2008 [52] ADL no declineb, c Mixed Y   71 %   
 Koval 1998 [51]g ADL level Community Y 59 % 71 % 73 %  
 Shah 2001 [47]g ADL level Community Y    70 %  
 Norton 2000 [22] Functional independenced Mixed U     72 %
 Osnes 2004 [25]f Living at home receiving assistance, assistance received at same frequency Mixed U    49 %  
Living at home without assistance    45 %
 Vergara 2014 [38] ADL (MBI)b Mixed U 29 %  
Activity – Self-care
 Magaziner 2000 [43]a, d Washing Community N    62 % 56 %
Dressing (socks & shoes)    67 % 67 %
Dressing (pants) 80 % 80 %
Getting on/off toilet 36 % 37 %
Activity – Communications
 Magaziner 2000 [43] Using the telephonea, d Community N    78 % 77 %
Participation – Composite measures of Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)
 Bentler 2009 [14] IADLs without difficultye NR N     55 %
 Koval 1998 [51]g IADLs Community Y 34 % 42 % 48 %  
 Shah 2001 [47]g      46 %
 Vergara 2014 [38] IADLsb Mixed U   25 %  
Participation – Domestic life
 Magaziner 2000a, d [43] Housecleaning Community N    38 % 57 %
Shopping    58 % 59 %
Cooking 76 % 77 %
Handling money 69 % 69 %
 Pitto 1994 [29] Social function (mix of self and domestic care)b, d  Mixed    60 %   
Participation – Community, social and civic life
 Magaziner 2000 [43] Getting places out of walking distancea, d Community Y    47 % 47 %
Health condition
 Bentler 2009 [14] Self-reported health statusb NR N     61 %
Cognition (TICS)b 56 %
 Magaziner 2000 [43] Taking medicationsa, d Community Y     71 %
 Pitto 1994 [29] Health statusb, d  Mixed   64 %    82 %
  1. aDetermined as 100 % less percentage of survivors newly dependent
  2. bDetermined as 100 % less the percentage of survivors deteriorated
  3. cIn this study, for patients who had died, functional status in the 2 weeks before death was determined by proxy interview and included
  4. dn/N not confirmed
  5. eDetermined as 100 % less the percentage of survivors that got worse regarding the number of activities with difficulty
  6. f Determined as 100 % less the percentage with loss of walking independence/receiving assistance, participants not followed from inception
  7. g, hStudies from the same cohort
  8. ADL activities of daily living, BOAS Brazil Old Age Schedule, LTC long term care, MBI modified Barthel Index, N no, NR not reported, TICS Telephone Interview to Assess Cognitive Status, U unclear, Y yes