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Table 3 Outcomes for hip fracture patients and control participants not experiencing hip fracture

From: A critical review of the long-term disability outcomes following hip fracture

Study Outcome Follow-up time Controls matched for Hip Fracture Control P-value
Activity - Mobility
 Boonen 2004 [19] Unable to walk independently 1 year age, residence    
<80 years 30 % 7 % <0.001
>80 years 56 % 15 % <0.001
 Magaziner 2003 [21] Disabled walking 3 m (SE) 1 year age, gender, walking ability 54 % (2) 21 % (2) <0.01
 Marottoli 1992 [16] Walk independently across room 6 mo (HF) age, gender, physical function 15 %   NR
1 year (Con)    72 %
 Norton 2000 [22] Retain community mobility 2 years age, gender 54 % 87 % P < 0.001e
 Wolinsky 1997 [17] Mean increase in no. lower body limitations Median 2.3 years nilf 1.75 0.75 P ≤ 0.0001
Mean increase in no. upper body limitations 0.50 0.27 P < 0.001
Activity - Composite measure of Basic ADLs
 Boonen 2004 [19] Mean RDRS-2 score for assistance with ADL (95 % CI) 1 year age, residence 8.6 (7.5–9.9) 2.8 (2.1–3.4) <0.001
 Norton 2000 [22] Retain functional independence 2 years age, gender, independence 72 % 94 % P < 0.001e
 Tosteson 2001 [23] Limited daily activities 1–5 years nil 59 % 13 % <0.05c
 Wolinsky 1997 [17] Mean increase in no. ADL limitations Median 2.3 years nilf 2.08 0.79 P ≤ 0.0001
Activity - Self-care
 Magaziner 2003 [21] Requiring assistance with grooming (SE)i 1 year age, gender, walking ability 17 % (2) 9 % (1) P < 0.001
2 years 18 % (2) 10 % (1) P < 0.001
 Marottoli 1992 [16] Dressing independently 6 mo (HF) age, gender, physical function 49 % - NR
1 year (Con) - 91 %
 Tosteson 2001 [23] Difficulty putting on socks 1–5 years nil 43 % 13 % P < 0.05
Participation – domestic life
 Wolinsky 1997 [17] Mean increase in no. household ADL limitationsg Median 2.3 years nilf 0.89 0.45 P ≤ 0.0001
Participation – IADLs
 Wolinsky 1997 [17] Mean increase in no. advanced ADL limitationsh Median 2.3 years nilf 0.44 0.26 P < 0.01
Health condition
 Boonen 2004 [19] Mean RDRS-2 score (95 % CI): 1 year age, residence    
Dependenceb 3.1 (2.6–2.7) 1.0 (0.7–1.3) <0.001
Cognitive impairment 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 0.3 (0.2–0.4) <0.001
Accommodation
 Autier 2000 [18] Institutionalisation 1 year age, residence 20 % 4 %  
 Cumming 1996 [20] Institutionalisation 1 year nil 27 % 5 % <0.05d
Quality of life
 Boonen 2004 [19] Mean (95 % CI) RDRS-2 score for QOL (inverted, higher indicates poorer QOL) 1 year age, residence 38.9 (34.3–43.5) 31.5 (27.5–37.5) <0.001
 Tosteson 2001 [23] Mean QALY (95 % CI) 1–5 years nil 0.63 (0.52, 0.74) 0.91 (0.88, 0.94) <0.051a
  1. Abbreviations: ADL activities of daily living, Con control, HF hip fracture, mo months, NR not reported, QALY quality adjusted life years, QOL quality of life, RDRS-2 Rapid Disability Rating Scale version-2, SE standard error
  2. aDifference remained after adjustment for age and hormone replacement therapy use
  3. bFor hearing, sight, communication, staying in bed during the day, incontinence and medication
  4. cDifference remained after adjustment for age
  5. dHR significantly different to 1.0 (HR = 4.0, 95 % CI 1.7 – 9.5) after adjustment for age, sex, mental state score, use of proxy respondent, living alone, living with spouse, physical activity (time spent working and/ or walking), number of self-reported medical conditions and self-reported history of myocardial infarction or Parkinson’s disease
  6. eAfter controlling for differences in age, gender and baseline mobility/functional independence
  7. fControls represent those in the prospective cohort that did not experience hip fracture
  8. gIncludes four items from Duke: meal preparation, shopping, light and heavy housework
  9. hIncludes managing money, using telephone and eating
  10. iControl cohort reported is Iowa EPESE cohort; two other control cohorts also reported, with consistent findings