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Table 2 Adverse outcome associated with frailty, grouped by the quality of studies

From: Frailty and post-operative outcomes in older surgical patients: a systematic review

Outcome Number of studies
  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Mortality
 1 year Mortality Quality [ref] Q1 [21] Q1 [33] Q1 [39] Q1 [37] Q1 [38] Q2 [18] Q2 [19] Q2 [23] Q2 [24] Q2 [32]
n = 10 N sample 100 275 244 12979 218 159 30 213 450 410
 2 Year Mortality Quality [ref] Q1 [38]          
n = 1 N sample 218          
 5 year Mortality Quality [ref] Q1 [27]          
n = 1 N sample 178          
 30 Day Mortality Quality [ref] Q1 [21] Q1 [26] Q1 [31] Q1 [36] Q2 [22] Q1 [30]     
n = 6 N sample 100 176 184 178 400 325     
 90 Day Mortality Quality [ref] Q1 [37] Q1 [30]         
n = 2 N sample 12979 325         
Post-Operative Complications
 Non-routine recovery Quality [ref] Q1 [25] Q1 [31] Q2 [18] Q2 [29] Q1 [17] Q1 [33] Q1 [34] Q1 [35] Q1 [39]  
n = 10 N sample 178 184 159 83 152 275 125 35 244  
 Need for resuscitation Quality [ref] Q2 [23]          
n = 1 N sample 213          
 Delirium Quality [ref] Q1 [35]          
n = 1 N sample 35          
 MACCE Quality [ref] Q1 [21] Q2 [23] Q2 [19]        
n = 3 N sample 100 213 30        
Discharge
 Length of stay Quality [ref] Q1 [36] Q1 [35] Q1 [30] Q2 [32] Q2 [18] Q1 [34]     
n = 6 N sample 178 35 325 410 159 125     
 Discharge to Institution Quality [ref] Q1 [33] Q2 [32]         
n = 3 N sample 275 410         
 Functional Decline Quality [ref] Q1 [34]          
n = 1 N sample 125          
Post-Discharge
 Readmission rate: 1 year Quality [ref] Q2 [32] Q1 [30]         
n = 2 N sample 410 325         
 Functional Decline Quality [ref] Q1 [20] Q2 [28]         
n = 2 N sample 119
at 6 months
84
1628 months
        
 Quality of Life: 6 months, 1 year Quality [ref] Q1 [39]          
n = 1 N sample 244          
  1. Bold: studies which found statistically significant association
  2. Q1 quartile one quality assessment, Q2 quartile two quality assessment, MACCE major cardiac & cerebral adverse events