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Table 2 Concentration of amino acids and monoamine metabolites in CSF

From: Increased CSF levels of aromatic amino acids in hip fracture patients with delirium suggests higher monoaminergic activity

  No dementia (n = 39) Dementia (n = 38)
No delirium
(n = 21)
Delirium
(n = 18)
p-value No delirium
(n = 3)
Delirium
(n = 35)
p-value
Amino acids
 Alanine, μmol/L 25 (20–36) 27 (19–43) 0.39 17 (16–17) 25 (20–32) 0.128
 Arginine, μmol/L 12 (11–16) 12 (9–17) 0.53 9 (9–9) 12 (9–13) 0.25
 Aspargine, μmol/L 5 (4–6) 6 (3–8) 0.51 3 (3–3) 4 (4–5) 0.07
 Glutamate, μmol/L 0.7 (0.4–1.8) 0.9 (0.6–1.7) 0.44 0.6 (0.3–0.6) 0.5 (0.4–0.8) 0.91
 Glutamine, μmol/L 460 (360–528) 505 (384–588) 0.34 284 (278–284) 385 (321–457) 0.045
 Glycine, μmol/L 28 (24–35) 27 (21–38) 0.51 23 (22–23) 28 (25–36) 0.72
 Isoleucine, μmol/L 5 (3–6) 6 (3–10) 0.11 5 (4–5) 6 (4–7) 0.88
 Leucine, μmol/L 11 (7–15) 12 (9–22) 0.38 12 (9–12) 13 (9–16) 0.98
 Lysine, μmol/L 13 (11–15) 13 (10–17) 0.77 10 (10–10) 12 (10–15) 0.48
 Methionine, μmol/L 3 (2–4) 4 (3–6) 0.030 3 (1–3) 4 (3–5) 0.029
 Phenylalanine, μmol/L 9 (7–13) 14 (9–19) 0.014 6 (6–6) 9 (7–11) 0.021
 Serine, μmol/L 17 (14–18) 15 (10–17) 0.21 13 (13–13) 15 (12–18) 0.92
 Taurine, μmol/L 8 (7–11) 8 (6–10) 0.64 8 (7–8) 7 (5–9) 0.71
 Tryptophan, μmol/L 0.8 (0.6–1.0) 1.1 (0.7–1.5) 0.042 0.6 (0.4–0.6) 0.7 (0.6–0.9) 0.15
 Tyrosine, μmol/L 5 (4–7) 8 (5–11) 0.028 4 (3–4) 5 (4–7) 0.041
 Valine, μmol/L 16 (13–25) 18 (14–31) 0.32 12 (12–12) 15 (12–21) 0.47
Monoamine metabolites
 HVA, nmol/L 170 (102–280) 204 (125–250) 0.42 134 (67–134) 114 (68–179) 0.88
 5HIAA, nmol/L 138 (111–156) 170 (119–261) 0.048 99 (81–99) 104 (68–(140) 0.84
  1. IQR interquartile range, HVA homovanillic acid, 5HIAA 5-hydroxyindoleacetic
  2. Concentration of amino acids and monoamine metabolites in hip fracture patients with and without delirium, stratified by pre-fracture dementia status. All values are median (IQR). P-values were calculated using Mann–Whitney U test. P-values below 0.05 are in bold