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Table 3 Short and long term effects of simultaneous and subsequent training on cognitive performance and everyday living skills

From: Influence of combined physical and cognitive training on cognition: a systematic review

Study Treatment condition Outcome measure of interest Targeted cognitive function Everyday living skills Long term effects on cognition
Simultaneous Intervention (Dual Task)
Choi et al., 2015 [37] I-DT 150 min per week for 4 weeks MMSE, K-MBI, CNT + n.e. n.e.
SPT 150 min per week for 4 weeks -
Coelho et al., 2013 [38] I-DT 180 min per week for 16 weeks MMSE, CDT, FAB, PS-WAIS + n.e. n.e.
NA-C Daily routinec n.e.
De Andrade et al., 2013 [39] I-DT 180 min per week for 16 weeks MMSE, CDT, FAB, PS-WAIS + n.e. n.e.
NA-C Daily routinec n.e.
Evans et al., 2009 [34] I-DT 35–70 min per week for 5 weeks DADT, The Memory Span & Tracking task, Telephone Search with Countning-TEA, DTQ + n.e. n.e.
NA-C Daily routinec n.e.
Hars et al., 2013 [42] I-DT 60 min per week for 25 weeks MMSE, CDT, FAB + n.e. n.e.
NA-C Daily routinec -
Hiyamizu et al., 2012 [43] I-DT 120 min per week for 12 weeks TMT A & B, Stroop + n.e. n.e.
SPT 120 min per week for 12 weeks -
Kayama et al., 2014 [44] I-DT 80 min per week for 12 weeks TMT A & B, a verbal fluency task + n.e. n.e.
SPT 75 min per week for 12 weeks -
Marmeleira et al., 2009 [45] I-DT 180 min per week for 12 weeks MMSE, Stroop, TMT B, UFOV, a reaction time test + n.e. n.e.
NA-C Daily routinec n.e.
Plummer-D’Amato et al., 2012 [41] I-DT 45 min per week for 4 weeks MoCA, Shipley Vocabulary Test, spontaneous speech, alphabet recitation, a coin transfer task - n.e. n.e.
SPT 45 min per week for 4 weeks -
Schwenk et al., 2010 [35] I-DT 240 min per week for 12 weeks MMSE, CERAD battery, TMT A & B, serial S2 forward- and S3 backward-test + n.e. n.e.
A-C 120 min per week for 12 weeks n.e.
Theill et al., 2013 [46] I-DT 60 min per week for 10 weeks MMSE, Computer-based tasks, n-back task, counting backwards + n.e. n.e.
SCT 60 min per week for 10 weeks +
NA-C Daily routinec n.e.
Yokoyama et al., 2015 [47] I-DT 180 min per week for 12 weeks MMSE+, TMT + n.e. n.e.
SPT 180 min per week for 12 weeks -
You et al., 2009 [40] I-DT 150 min per week for 6 weeks MMSE, a word memorizing task, arithmetic calculations + n.e. n.e.
A-C 150 min per week for 6 weeks n.e
Subsequent Intervention
Barnes et al., 2013 [36] I-S 360 min per week for 12 weeks RAVLT, TMT A & B, DSST, EFT, UFOV, a verbal fluency task +a n.e. n.e.
SCT 180 min per week for 12 weeks +a
SPT 180 min per week for 12 weeks +a
A-C 180 min per week for 12 weeks n.e.
De Bruin et al., 2013 [48] I-S 90 min per week for 12 weeks + 30–50 min/week for 10 weeks MMSE, Reaction time tasks + n.e. n.e.
SPT 90 min per week for 12 weeks +b
Fabre et al., 2002 [49] I-S 210 min per week for 8 weeks WMS, BEC 96 Questionnaire + n.e. n.e.
SCT 90 min per week for 8 weeks +
SPT 120 min per week for 8 weeks +
A-C 120 min per week for 8 weeks n.e.
Legault et al., 2011 [50] I-S 230–276 min per week for 8 weeks + 190–228 min/week for 8 weeks Hopkins VLT, Logical Memory Task-WMS-III, Self-Ordered Pointing Task, 1-Back and 2-Back tasks, EFT, Task Switching Test, TMT A & B - n.e. n.e.
SCT 80–96 min per week for 8 weeks + 40–48 min/week for 8 weeks -
SPT 150–180 min per week for 16 weeks -
A-C 1 × per week for 16 weeks n.e.
Oswald et al., 2006 [33] I-S 135 min per week for 30 weeks WAIS, NAI + + +
SCT 90 min per week for 30 weeks + - +
SPT 45 min per week for 30 weeks - - -
PE 90 min per week for 30 weeks - - -
SPT + PE 135 min per week for 30 weeks + PE - + -
NA-C Non-active (no detailed information) n.e. n.e. n.e.
Van het Reve, et al., 2014 [52] I-S 70 min per week for 12 weeks TMT A & B, VTS, a reaction time task + n.e n.e.
SPT 40 min per week for 12 weeks -
Shatil, 2013 [51] I-S 255 min per week for 16 weeks MMSE, CogniFit training Programme +a n.e. n.e.
SCT 120 min per week for 16 weeks +a
SPT 135 min per week for 16 weeks -
A-C 60 min per week for 16 weeks n.e.
  1. I-DT simultaneous physical and cognitive training intervention (Dual Task), I-S subsequent physical and cognitive training Intervention, SPT single physical training, SCT single cognitive training, PE psycho-educational training, A-C active control group, NA-C non active control group, min minutes; + = significant effect (p < 0.05); - = no effect (p > 0.05), n.e. not estimated
  2. MMSE mini-mental state examination (+ modified Mini-Mental State Examination-3MS), K-MBI, Korean modified barthel index for daily activities, CNT computerized neuropsychological test, FAB frontal assessment battery, CDT Clock Drawing Test, PS (WAIS) symbol search subtest (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), DADT divided attention and dual-tasking battery, TEA test of everyday attention, DTQ dual-tasking questionnaire, TMT A & B trail making test parts A and B, UFOV useful field of view, MoCA Montreal cognitive assessment, CSRT choice stepping reaction time, CERAD batttery consortium-to-establish-a-registry-for-Alzheimer’s-disease battery, RAVLT ray auditory verbal learning test, DSST digit symbol substitution test, EFT Eriksen flanker test, WMS Wechsler memory scale, VLT verbal learning test, NAI neuropsychological aging inventory, VTS Vienna test system (computerized cognitive assessment)
  3. aTraining of a wide range of cognitive functions. Improvement found only in them.bSignificant positive effect found only for one of the two outcomes, cduration same as in intervention group