Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Characteristics of simultaneous and subsequent interventions, comparison and control condition

From: Influence of combined physical and cognitive training on cognition: a systematic review

Study Combined physical and cognitive training intervention Comparison groups Control group
Physical part Cognitive part
Simultaneous Intervention (Dual Task)
Choi et al., 2015 [37] 30 min × 5 times per week for 4 weeks– Total intervention time: 600 min (10 h) SPT -
Physical therapy, balance-training Memory, learning ability
Coelho et al., 2013 [38] 60 min × 3 times per week for 16 weeks with an increasing level of difficulty – Total intervention time: 2880 min (48 h) - NA-C
Training of aerobic capacity (65–75 % of max. heart rate for age), resistance- flexibility- and balance- and agility-training Measured: Heart rate, blood pressure Attention, executive function, psychomotor ability, verbal fluency
De Andrade et al., 2013 [39] 60 min × 3 times per week for 16 weeks with an increased level of difficulty – Total intervention time: 2880 min (48 h) - NA-C
Training of aerobic capacity (65–75 % of max. heart rate), strength- flexibility- and balance-training Measured: Heart rate Working memory and verbal fluency
Evans et al., 2009 [34] 7–14 min × 5 times per week for 5 weeks – Total intervention time: 175–360 min (3–6 h) - NA-C
Walking vividly for 2 min Divided attention and meta-attention
Hars et al., 2013 [42] 60 min once a week for 25 weeks - Total intervention time: 1500 min (25 h) - NA-C
Multitask exercises (walking, handling objects, quick reactions) following music Frontal-lobe cognitive function
Hiyamizu et al., 2012 [43] 60 min × 2 times per week for 12 weeks – Total intervention time: 1440 min (24 h) SPT -
Walking, strength- and balance-training Working memory, visual scanning and verbal fluency
Kayama et al., 2014 [44] 75–80 min once a week for 12 weeks - Total intervention time: 900–960 min (15–16 h) SPT -
Training of aerobic capacity, strength, balance and flexibility Arithmetical reasoning-ability
Marmeleira et al., 2009 [45] 60 min × 3 times per week for 12 weeks – Total intervention time: 2160 min (36 h) - NA-C
Training of aerobic capacity, walking Visual attention, executive function, speed of information processing, psycho-motor performance
Plummer-D’Amato et al., 2012 [41] 45 min × 1 time per week for 4 weeks – Total intervention time: 180 min (3 h) SPT -
Gait, balance and agility training Working memory, verbal learning, verbal fluency
Schwenk et al., 2010 [35] 120 min × 2 times per week for 12 weeks – Total intervention time: 2880 min (48 h) - A-C
Progressive resistance- and functional balance training Working memory
Theill et al., 2013 [46] 30 min × 2 times per week for 10 weeks – Total intervention time: 600 min (10 h) SCT NA-C
Walking on treadmill Measured: Heart rate Working memory
Yokoyama et al., 2015 [47] 60 min × 3 times per week for 12 weeks – Total intervention time: 2160 min (36 h) SPT -
Training of aerobic capacity, resistance- and flexibility-training Arithmetic or word tasks, switch walking direction
You et al., 2009 [40] 30 min × 5 times per week for 6 weeks (total of 18 sessions/participant) – Total intervention time: 540 min (9 h) - A-C
Walking a 30 m walkway Verbal episodic memory, working memory
Subsequent Intervention
Barnes et al., 2013 [36] 60 min physical training + 60 min cognitive training – Total: 120 min × 3 times per week for 12 weeks – Total intervention time: 4320 min (72 h) SCT SPT A-C
Training of aerobic capacity and strength, stretching, relaxation Measured: Heart rate Divided attention, working memory, visual and auditory perception
De Bruin et al., 2013 [48] 45 min physical training × 2 times per week for 12 weeks + 10 min cognitive training × 3–5 times per week for 10 weeks – Total intervention time: 1380–1578 min (23–26,3 h) SPT -
Training of aerobic capacity (e.g. stair climbing, etc.), strength and balance Attention (alertness, selective, divided)
Fabre et al., 2002 [49] 60 min physical training × 2 times per week for 8 weeks + 90 min cognitive training × 1 time per week for 8 weeks – Total intervention time: 1680 min (28 h) SCT SPT A-C
Training of aerobic capacity (e.g. jogging) Measured: Heart rate Attention, episodic and working memory, verbal learning, verbal fluency, visual/auditory perception
Legault et al., 2011 [50] 60 min physical training (at experimental facility) × 2 times per week plus 30 min at home × 1-2 times per week: 150–180 min per week for 16 weeks + 40–48 min cognitive training × 2 times per week for 8 weeks and afterwards 40–48 min once weekly for 8 weeks – Total intervention time: 3360–4032 min (56–67,2 h) SCT SPT A-C
Training of aerobic capacity and flexibility, walking, cycling Verbal learning, episodic memory
Oswald et al., 2006 [33] 45 min physical training + 90 min cognitive training once weekly for 30 weeks - Total intervention time: 4050 min (67,5 h) SCT SPT PE SPT + PE NA-C
Flexibility- and balance-training, motor coordination (gymnastic exercises, dancing) Attention, episodic memory, speed of information processing
Shatil, 2013 [51] 45 min physical training + 40 min cognitive training × 3 times per week for 16 weeks – Total intervention time: SPT = 2160 min (36 h), SCT = 1920 min (32 h) SCT SPT A-C
Training of aerobic capacity, strength and flexibility Measured: Heart rate Attention, memory, perception, verbal learning, executive function, speed of information processing and motor coordination
Van het Reve et al., 2014 [52] 40 min physical training × 2 times per week + 10 min of cognitive training 3 × times per week for 12 weeks – Total interventin time: SPT = 960 min (16 h), SCT = 360 min (6 h) SPT -
Strength- and balance-training Attention (alertness, selective, divided)
  1. A-C active control group, NA-C non-active control group, SCT single cognitive training, SPT single physical training, PE psycho-educational training, h hours, min minutes, - non-existent