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Table 4 Associations between frailty measures and outcomes at one year following index date

From: The prevalence and health consequences of frailty in a population-based older home care cohort: a comparison of different measures

Frailty index Model Frailty levela Outcomes at one year, risk ratio (95 % CI)
Death LTC admission Hospitalization Hospitalization with ALC stayb
Full frailty index [FI] Unadjusted Pre-Frail 1.47 (1.44, 1.50) 2.21 (2.16, 2.27) 1.19 (1.18, 1.20) 1.44 (1.41, 1.48)
   Frail 2.43 (2.38, 2.49) 3.92 (3.83, 4.01) 1.26 (1.24, 1.28) 1.59 (1.55, 1.63)
  Adjustedc Pre-Frail 1.45 (1.42, 1.48) 2.20 (2.15, 2.26) 1.17 (1.16, 1.19) 1.42 (1.39, 1.45)
   Frail 2.32 (2.27, 2.37) 3.84 (3.75, 3.93) 1.22 (1.20, 1.23) 1.51 (1.47, 1.55)
Modified frailty index [FI] Unadjusted Pre-Frail 1.36 (1.33, 1.39) 2.13 (2.08, 2.19) 1.16 (1.15, 1.17) 1.40 (1.37, 1.44)
   Frail 2.26 (2.22, 2.31) 3.64 (3.55, 3.73) 1.25 (1.24, 1.27) 1.57 (1.53, 1.61)
  Adjustedc Pre-Frail 1.35 (1.32, 1.38) 2.11 (2.05, 2.16) 1.15 (1.14, 1.16) 1.38 (1.35, 1.41)
   Frail 2.16 (2.12, 2.21) 3.58 (3.50, 3.67) 1.21 (1.20, 1.23) 1.50 (1.47, 1.54)
CHESS scale Unadjusted Pre-Frail 1.30 (1.26, 1.34) 1.39 (1.35, 1.43) 1.17 (1.15, 1.19) 1.30 (1.26, 1.34)
   Frail 2.36 (2.30, 2.43) 1.96 (1.91, 2.02) 1.40 (1.38, 1.41) 1.69 (1.64, 1.74)
  Adjustedc Pre-Frail 1.29 (1.25, 1.33) 1.40 (1.36, 1.44) 1.15 (1.13, 1.17) 1.28 (1.25, 1.32)
   Frail 2.27 (2.21, 2.33) 1.99 (1.94, 2.04) 1.34 (1.32, 1.36) 1.62 (1.58, 1.67)
  1. ALC Alternative Level of Care, CI Confidence Interval, ED Emergency Department
  2. a – Robust individuals serve as the reference category
  3. b – Individuals hospitalized without an ALC stay removed from analysis (N = 66,764)
  4. c – Adjusted for age, sex, and number of ADG comorbidity categories