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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the study sample

From: Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China

  Total (N = 439) Men (n = 214) Women (n = 225)
Age, years (M ± SD) 69.08 ± 7.25 69.94 ± 7.35 68.26 ± 7.07
Education    
No formal schooling 40 (9.1) 5 (2.3) 35 (15.6)
Primary school 112 (25.5) 50 (23.4) 62 (27.6)
Middle school 120 (27.3) 56 (26.2) 64 (28.4)
High school 122 (27.8) 69 (32.2) 53 (23.6)
University 45 (10.3) 34 (15.9) 11 (4.9)
Current work status    
Retired 303 (69.0) 177 (82.7) 126 (56.0)
Casual labourer 15 (3.4) 13 (6.1) 2 (0.9)
Self-employed 13 (3.0) 11 (5.1) 2 (0.9)
Housewife 94 (21.4) 4 (1.9) 90 (40.0)
Full-time employee 14 (3.2) 9 (4.2) 5 (2.2)
Marital status    
Single or unmarried 3 (0.7) 1 (0.5) 2 (0.9)
Married 363 (82.7) 190 (88.8) 173 (76.9)
Divorced or separated 4 (0.9) 3 (1.4) 1 (0.4)
Widowed 69 (15.7) 20 (9.3) 49 (21.8)
Living arrangement    
Alone 26 (5.9) 9 (4.2) 17 (7.6)
With spouse 322 (73.3) 171 (79.9) 151 (67.1)
With son 60 (13.7) 23 (10.7) 37 (16.4)
With daughter 22 (5.0) 9 (4.2) 13 (5.8)
With grandchildren 3 (0.7) 1 (0.5) 2 (0.9)
With other relatives 2 (0.5) 1 (0.5) 1 (0.4)
With friends 2 (0.5) 1 (0.5) 2 (0.9)
In institution 2 (0.5) 0 (0) 2 (0.9)
  1. Data are presented as n (%) unless otherwise indicated. M, mean; SD, standard deviation