Skip to main content


Table 4 Themes and sub-themes of the guidelines

From: Development of guidelines for family and non-professional helpers on assisting an older person who is developing cognitive impairment or has dementia: a Delphi expert consensus study

Themes Sub-themes
What is confusion and dementia?  
What to do if you are concerned that a person may be developing dementia • Talking to the person • Seeking professional help • If the person is reluctant to get help
Supporting the person with dementia • Seeing the person behind the dementia • Helping the person with their memory problems • Helping the person to complete tasks • Helping the person who is disoriented • Helping the person who has regressed into the past
Communicating with the person • Gaining and keeping the person’s attention • Being understood during a conversation • Communicating in a group situation • Asking the person questions • Offering the person options • Non-verbal communication • Challenges experienced during communication
Discussing sensitive issues • Discussing the diagnosis • Making decisions and planning for the future • Discussions and decisions about driving • Discussions and decisions about care
Behaviours that you may find challenging • Resistance • Arguments • Agitation • Anger and aggression • Disinhibited and inappropriate sexual behaviour • Delusions and hallucinations
Assisting someone who is wandering • How to tell if a person is wandering • What to do if you encounter someone who is wandering • Ways of identifying people who wander • Contacting emergency services
Delirium • Delirium is a medical emergency • If you are caring for a person with delirium