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Table 4 Themes and sub-themes of the guidelines

From: Development of guidelines for family and non-professional helpers on assisting an older person who is developing cognitive impairment or has dementia: a Delphi expert consensus study

Themes Sub-themes
What is confusion and dementia?  
What to do if you are concerned that a person may be developing dementia • Talking to the person
• Seeking professional help
• If the person is reluctant to get help
Supporting the person with dementia • Seeing the person behind the dementia
• Helping the person with their memory problems
• Helping the person to complete tasks
• Helping the person who is disoriented
• Helping the person who has regressed into the past
Communicating with the person • Gaining and keeping the person’s attention
• Being understood during a conversation
• Communicating in a group situation
• Asking the person questions
• Offering the person options
• Non-verbal communication
• Challenges experienced during communication
Discussing sensitive issues • Discussing the diagnosis
• Making decisions and planning for the future
• Discussions and decisions about driving
• Discussions and decisions about care
Behaviours that you may find challenging • Resistance
• Arguments
• Agitation
• Anger and aggression
• Disinhibited and inappropriate sexual behaviour
• Delusions and hallucinations
Assisting someone who is wandering • How to tell if a person is wandering
• What to do if you encounter someone who is wandering
• Ways of identifying people who wander
• Contacting emergency services
Delirium • Delirium is a medical emergency
• If you are caring for a person with delirium