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Table 2 Health outcomes as a function of caregiver status

From: Impact of caring for persons with Alzheimer’s disease or dementia on caregivers’ health outcomes: findings from a community based survey in Japan

  Non-caregivers (n = 53758) Caregivers (n = 1302) Total (n = 55060)
Mean/% SD/n Mean/% SD/n Mean/% SD/n
PHQ-9 3.18 4.75 4.40* 5.48 3.21 4.77
PHQ-9: category PHQ-9: < 10 91.1 % 48957 85.8 % 1117* 90.9 % 50074
PHQ-9: ≥ 10 (MDD) 8.9 % 4801 14.2 % 185* 9.1 % 4986
Diagnosed comorbidities       
  Depression 3.3 % 1778 6.2 % 81* 3.4 % 1859
  Insomnia 4.4 % 2361 9.8 % 128* 4.5 % 2489
  Anxiety 0.8 % 448 2.0 % 26* 0.9 % 474
  Hypertension 11.7 % 6290 17.5 % 228* 11.8 % 6518
  Pain 7.9 % 4269 15.5 % 202* 8.1 % 4471
  Diabetes (Type 1/2) 3.7 % 1981 6.1 % 79* 3.7 % 2060
SF-6D 0.765 0.121 0.724* 0.124 0.764 0.121
SF-36v2: Physical Component Summary 53.57 6.09 51.58* 6.62 53.52 6.11
SF-36v2: Mental Component Summary 48.01 9.61 46.00* 10.65 47.96 9.64
WPAI: % absenteeism: work missed due to healtha 2.87 12.38 5.38* 15.79 2.93 12.47
WPAI: % presenteeism-related impairment: impairment while working due to healtha 18.64 23.21 22.75* 25.42 18.73 23.27
WPAI: % overall work impairment due to healtha 20.26 25.23 25.69* 28.16 20.38 25.31
WPAI: % activity impairment due to health 20.71 24.44 25.43* 25.82 20.83 24.49
Emergency room visits, past 6 months 0.08 0.89 0.29* 1.78 0.09 0.92
Hospitalizations, past 6 months 0.46 4.09 0.83* 5.23 0.47 4.12
Traditional healthcare provider visits, past 6 months 4.38 7.70 7.74* 18.53 4.46 8.14
Emergency room visits (1+), past 6 months 3.2 % 1722 7.3 % 95* 3.3 % 1817
Hospitalizations (1+), past 6 months 4.0 % 2152 8.2 % 107* 4.1 % 2259
Traditional healthcare provider visits (1+), past 6 months 56.5 % 30388 74.9 % 975* 57.0 % 31363
  1. Caregivers were defined as those currently caring for an adult relative with Alzheimer’s disease or dementia, whereas non-caregivers were those not currently caring for an adult relative with any listed condition
  2. MDD major depressive disorder, PHQ patient health questionnaire, SD standard deviation, SF short form, WPAI work productivity and activity impairment
  3. *p < 0.05 for the two-tailed significance of differences across caregivers and non-caregivers within a given row
  4. aAbsenteeism and overall work impairment results were available only for employed respondents, excluding those who both worked and missed 0 h, as well as outliers who reported > 112 potential work hours in the past week (n = 30737: 693 caregivers and 30044 non-caregivers). Presenteeism-related impairment results were available only for employed respondents who worked >0 h in the past week (n = 31460: 712 caregivers and 30748 non-caregivers)