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Table 3 Item distribution and internal consistency per item based on four observations for each case – German version of the QUALIDEM

From: Item distribution, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability of the German version of the QUALIDEM for people with mild to severe and very severe dementia

  FAST 2 – 6 (n = 55) FAST 7 (n = 36)
  Never Very seldom Seldom Sometimes Often Frequently Very frequently Mean SD Alphac Never Very seldom Seldom Sometimes Often Frequently Very frequently Mean SD Alphac
A. Care relationship           0.9           0.8
  4 Rejects help from nursing assistantsa 79 48 29 23 12 13 16 4.3 1.9            
  7 Is angrya 31 46 61 36 14 12 20 3.7 1.7   59 39 9 13 12 4 8 4.5 1.8  
  14 Has conflicts with nursing assistantsa 93 65 21 16 5 9 11 4.7 1.7   78 19 12 12 10 4 9 4.7 1.9  
  17 Accuses othersa 90 43 29 23 14 17 4 4.5 1.7            
  24 Appreciates help that he or she receives 5 4 18 35 31 55 72 4.4 1.5            
  31 Accepts help 0 4 1 14 24 50 127 5.3b 1.1   1 1 4 4 11 34 89 5.3b 1.1  
  33 Criticizes the daily routinea 147 30 14 5 13 8 3 5.2b 1.5            
B. Positive Affect           0.9           0.8
  1 Is cheerful 19 20 24 38 49 40 30 3.5 1.8            
  5 Radiates satisfaction 4 10 18 21 65 63 39 4.2 1.5   10 10 13 5 32 49 25 4.0 1.8  
  8 Is capable of enjoying things in daily life 2 0 13 25 53 76 51 4.5 1.2   9 7 6 21 31 49 21 4.0 1.6  
  10 Is in good mood 10 19 19 40 55 51 26 3.7 1.6            
  21 Has a smile around the mouth 9 17 28 31 38 46 51 3.9 1.8   12 9 24 17 20 27 35 3.7 1.9  
  40 Mood can be influenced in positive sense 8 13 15 22 44 71 47 4.2 1.6   10 15 9 8 14 43 45 4.2 2.0  
C. Negative Affect           0.7           0.4
  6 Makes an anxious impressiona 66 57 35 33 20 8 1 4.4 1.5   24 15 17 29 21 17 21 3.0 2.0  
  11 Is sada 69 42 31 32 23 16 7 4.1 1.8            
  23 Criesa 143 24 17 24 12 0 0 5.2b 1.3   113 16 0 10 2 1 2 5.5b 1.2  
D. Restless tense behavior           0.8           0.7
  2 Makes restless movementsa 89 29 20 17 14 14 37 3.9 2.3   38 15 11 8 14 22 36 2.9 2.4  
  19 Is restlessa 74 52 19 18 9 16 32 4.0 2.2   28 23 21 3 12 17 40 2.9 2.4  
  22 Has tense body languagea 93 35 33 31 17 4 7 4.5 1.6   28 12 20 13 8 31 32 2.7 2.3  
E. Positive self-image           0.7           
  27 Indicates he or she would like more helpa 165 29 10 9 5 2 0 5.5b 1.0            
  35 Indicates not being able to do anythinga 129 38 23 13 12 4 1 5.1b 1.4            
  37 Indicates feeling worthlessa 134 20 11 28 16 7 4 4.9b 1.7            
F. Social relations           0.8           0.4
  3 Has contact with other residents 16 12 15 8 30 47 92 4.4 1.9   57 22 14 3 0 26 22 2.2 2.4  
  12 Responds positively when approached 1 2 7 26 30 61 93 4.9b 1.3   4 3 5 11 13 45 63 4.9b 1.5  
  18 Takes care for other residents 107 27 20 17 19 19 11 1.6 2.0            
  25 Cuts himself/herself off from environment 99 31 29 27 10 13 11 4.5 1.8   116 10 2 2 4 4 6 5.4b 1.6  
  29 Is on friendly terms with one or more residents 56 17 15 25 19 29 59 3.2 2.4            
  34 Feels at ease in the company of others 13 27 14 12 41 64 49 4.0 1.9            
G. Social isolation           0.5           0.1
  16 Is rejected by other residentsa 124 45 5 21 4 11 10 4.9b 1.8   104 19 7 5 4 2 3 5.4b 1.3  
  20 Openly rejects contact with othersa 68 46 32 18 27 23 6 4.1 1.8   90 25 11 12 1 3 2 5.2b 1.3  
  32 Calls outb 167 13 5 4 4 6 21 5.1b 2.0   97 7 5 1 1 3 30 4.5 2.5  
H. Feeling at home           0.4           
  13 Indicates that he or she is boreda 148 43 23 5 1 0 0 5.5b 0.8            
  28 Indicates feeling locked upa 181 16 13 5 5 0 0 5.7b 0.9            
  36 Feels at home on the ward 61 21 19 17 23 53 26 2.8 2.3            
  39 Wants to get off the warda 172 20 9 6 7 2 4 5.5b 1.3            
I. Having something to do           0.3           
  26 Finds things to do without help from others 77 13 11 21 16 38 44 2.8 2.4            
  38 Enjoys helping with chores on the ward 118 43 18 17 9 13 2 1.1b 1.6            
  Remaining items to be used in future research                     
  9 Does not want to eata 105 48 14 18 16 17 2 4.7 1.7   53 25 31 13 5 5 11 4.3 1.8  
  15 Enjoys meals 10 15 27 18 42 54 54 4.0 1.8   17 12 10 17 10 41 35 3.8 2.1  
  30 Likes to lie down (in bed)a 81 30 17 24 22 20 26 3.8 2.2   69 19 7 7 21 10 7 4.4 2.0  
Frequencies of the response options in total, n 3063 1114 782 823 870 1052 1096     1017 323 238 214 246 437 542    
Frequencies of the response options in total, % 35 13 9 9 10 12 12     34 11 8 7 8 14 18    
  1. aContraindicative items
  2. bItems with floor effects (mean < 1.2) or ceiling effects (mean > 4.8)
  3. cCalculation of Cronbach’s alpha based on the median of four observations for each case and item