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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and complications among participants and differences among deceased and survivors. Univariate and multivariate cox regression analyses

From: Co-morbidities, complications and causes of death among people with femoral neck fracture – a three-year follow-up study

  All cases Deceased within 3 years Survivors Univariate Multivariate
  n = 199 (%) n = 79 n = 120 Pa Pb HR CI
Baseline characteristics:      Model A.   
Age, mean ± SD 82.2 ± 6.2 82.9 ± 5.8 81.7 ± 6.5 0.233 0.435 1.016 0.977–1.056
Female 148 (74 %) 53 95 0.029 0.052 0.604 0.363–1.005
Living in residential care facilities 73 (37 %) 37 36 0.028    
Living alone 146 (74 %) 59 87 0.696    
Current smoker (n = 169) 6 (4 %) 2 4 0.955    
Dependence in walking (n = 195) 25 (13 %) 15 10 0.004    
Dependence in P-ADL 115 (58 %) 59 56 <0.001 0.005 2.379 1.300–4.354
Cancer (n = 194) 29 (15 %) 21 8 <0.001 <0.001 3.449 2.020–5.890
Cardiovascular disease (n = 194) 110 (57 %) 55 55 <0.001 0.004 2.177 1.287–3.682
Dementia 64 (32 %) 37 27 0.001 0.016 1.921 1.131–3.262
Depression (n = 197) 78 (40 %) 39 39 0.040    
Diabetes (n = 197) 40 (20 %) 22 18 0.059    
Kidney disease (n = 194) 21 (11 %) 10 11 0.321    
Pulmonary disease (n = 194) 33 (17 %) 17 16 0.049    
Stroke (n = 195) 49 (25 %) 23 26 0.184    
ASA grade 3–4 (n = 197) 109 (55 %) 51 58 0.007    
Internal fixation 69 (35 %) 33 36 0.420    
Hemiarthroplasty 111 (56 %) 37 74 0.228    
Dynamic hip screw 17 (9 %) 7 10 0.998    
Other 1 (0.5 %) 1 0 0.345    
No of. comorbidities:        
0 31 (16 %) 3 28 <0.001    
1 37 (19 %) 7 30 0.260    
2 52 (26 %) 25 27 0.005    
≥3 79 (40 %) 44 (56 %) 35 (29 %) 0.001    
Complications during hospitalization:      Model B.   
Pneumonia/chest infection 8 6 2 0.001 0.021 2.916 1.175–7.237
Urinary tract infection 82 38 44 0.241    
Other infection 34 15 19 0.528    
Wound infection 0 0 0     
Deep wound infection 1 1 0 0.054    
Cardiac failure 17 12 5 0.001 0.010 2.457 1.242–4.858
Myocardial infarction 6 6 0 0.052    
Deep vein thrombosis 1 1 0 0.050    
Pulmonary embolism 1 1 0 0.002 0.001 33.219 3.961–278.570
Stroke 3 2 1 0.072    
Cancer 3 2 1 0.120    
Gastric ulcer 7 3 4 0.538    
Delirium 129 63 70 0.005 0.018 2.006 1.127–3.570
Fallers 38 19 19 0.267    
Number of falls 78 41 37 0.262    
Fracture 4 2 2 0.609    
Luxation 6 3 3 0.416    
Reoperation 8 3 5 0.926    
Decubital ulcers 30 16 14 0.044    
Combining baseline and complication factors:      Model C.   
Age      0.705 1.008 0.968–1.049
Female      0.118 0.655 0.386–1.113
Dependence in P-ADL      0.007 2.362 1.271–4.387
Cancer      <0.001 3.393 1.959–5.877
Cardiovascular disease      0.013 2.026 1.160–3.539
Dementia      0.023 1.883 1.091–3.250
Pneumonia/chest infection        
Cardiac failure      0.018 2.221 1.148–4.294
Pulmonary embolism      <0.001 69.396 7.107–677.632
Delirium        
  1. SD Standard deviation
  2. P-ADL Personal Activities of Daily Living
  3. ASA American Society of Anaesthesiologists classification
  4. HR Hazard ratio
  5. CI 95 % Confidence interval
  6. a p according to univariate cox regression model
  7. b p according to multivariate cox regression model