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Table 2 Clinical characteristics associated with psychotropic drug use, crude and adjusted values for Analysis 1 and 2

From: Multi-psychotropic drug prescription and the association to neuropsychiatric symptoms in three Norwegian nursing home cohorts between 2004 and 2011

  Psychotropic drugs Crude Adjusted
  0 1 2 ≥3 OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Patients, % 27.3 32.2 23.4 17.1     
Factors included in Analyses 1 and 2         
Age, mean (SD) 86.7 (6.9) 86.1 (7.0) 85.3 (6.8) 83.9 (6.8) 0.97** 0.96–97 0.97** 0.96–0.98
Femalesa, % 68.8 72.4 72.5 72.8 1.13* 1.01–1.27 1.20* 1.06–1.36
Dependency, mean (SD) d 18.9 (5.5) 18.1 (5.5) 17.8 (5.2) 17.2 (5.2) 0.97** 0.96–0.98 0.96** 0.95–0.97
Regular drugs without psychotropics, mean (SD) 4.9 (2.8) 5.3 (3.0) 5.5 (2.9) 5.2 (2.9) 1.04** 1.02–1.06 1.05** 1.03–1.07
Analysis 1         
Cognitive impairmentb         
 Noa, % 9.9 11.1 11.0 10.3 1   1  
 Questionable, % 9.2 7.7 8.2 8.0 0.88 0.70–1.12 1.19 0.91–1.55
 Mild, % 13.3 15.6 14.1 15.7 1.03 0.84–1.27 1.23 0.98–1.54
 Moderate, % 26.0 28.6 31.1 28.5 1.05 0.87–1.26 1.19 0.97–1.46
 Severe, % 41.6 37.1 35.7 37.6 0.89 0.74–1.06 1.15 0.92–1.42
NPI-NH sub-syndromes         
 Affective symptoms, mean (SD) 1.8 (3.5) 2.6 (4.2) 3.9 (5.2) 5.9 (6.2) 1.** 1.10–1.13 1.10** 1.09–1.12
 Agitation, mean (SD) 3.2 (5.2) 3.5 (5.5) 4.4 (6.1) 5.7 (6.5) 1.05** 1.04–1.06 1.02** 1.01–1.03
 Psychosis, mean (SD) 1.8 (4.1) 2.3 (4.6) 2.8 (5.0) 4.4 (6.3) 1.06** 1.05–1.07 1.02** 1.01–1.04
 Apathy, mean (SD) 1.9 (3.5) 1.8 (3.2) 2.0 (3.4) 2.3 (3.6) 1.02* 1.00–1.03 0.99 0.98–1.01
Analysis 2, 2004 and 2011 cohort         
NPI-NH total score 13.5 (16.3) 15.4 (16.8) 19.2 (19.3) 25.5 (21.8) 1.02** 1.02–1.02 1.02** 1.02–1.03
Diagnosesc         
 Dementia, % 27.4 26.9 26.5 33.3 1.13* 1.01–1.27 1.19* 1.03–1.37
 Hypertension, % 14.4 13.5 14.2 12.4 0.93 0.81–1.08 1.01 0.86–1.19
 Stroke, % 12.2 9.3 9.2 7.3 0.72** 0.61–0.86 0.89 0.74–1.07
 Heart failure, % 9.3 7.8 7.3 7.0 0.82* 0.68–0.99 0.90 0.73–1.11
 Atrial fibrillation/flutter, % 8.5 8.3 6.8 5.7 0.78* 0.64–0.94 0.92 0.75–1.13
 Angina, % 3.9 4.7 6.1 6.1 1.42* 1.13–1.79 1.60** 1.26–2.04
 Osteoporosis, % 5.7 6.0 4.7 4.8 0.85 0.68–1.08 0.91 0.72–1.16
 Hip fracture, % 6.1 5.0 4.8 5.3 0.88 0.70–1.10 1.04 0.82–1.33
 Diabetes, % 5.8 5.2 5.4 2.8 0.75* 0.59–0.95 0.75* 0.59–0.97
  1. P-values, odds ratios and confidence intervals from cumulative odds logistic regression. Analysis 1 and 2 included age, sex, dependency and total medication. The factor unique to each analysis is listed below their headlines in the table
  2. NPI-NH neuropsychiatric inventory – nursing home version, SD standard deviation, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. aused as reference, bassessed by Clinical Dementia Rating scale, cfrom ICD-codes in patient records, * p-value < 0.05, ** p-value < 0.001, dhigher scores indicates more dependency in daily living