Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Baseline characteristics (N = 523,811)

From: Prescription of potentially inappropriate medication in Korean older adults based on 2012 Beers Criteria: a cross-sectional population based study

Characteristics   Male (n = 212,082) No (%)   Female (n = 311,729) No (%)   Total (n = 523,811) No (%)
Age, years       
 65–69 85,169 (40.16) 101,098 (32.43) 186,267 (35.56)
 70–74 62,964 (29.69) 85,631 (27.47) 148,595 (28.37)
 75–79 37,059 (17.47) 62,664 (20.10) 99,723 (19.04)
 80–84 17,559 (8.28) 38,087 (12.22) 55,646 (10.62)
 ≥85 9,331 (4.40) 24,249 (7.78) 33,580 (6.41)
No. of medications prescribed       
 0–5 83,104 (39.18) 99,179 (31.82) 182,283 (34.80)
 6–9 106,319 (50.13) 169,554 (54.39) 275,873 (52.67)
 ≥10 22,659 (10.68) 42,996 (13.79) 65,655 (12.53)
No. of medications from Beers Criteria 2012       
 0 45,721 (21.56) 54,026 (17.33) 99,747 (19.04)
 1–4 155,456 (73.30) 237,099 (76.06) 392,555 (74.94)
 ≥5 10,905 (5.14) 20,604 (6.61) 31,509 (6.02)
Visited specialtya       
Physicianb 99,893 (54.14) 138,452 (51.48) 238,345 (52.56)
Surgeonc 56,601 (30.68) 72,949 (27.12) 129,550 (28.57)
Othersd 28,014 (15.18) 57,548 (21.40) 85,562 (18.87)
Types of healthcare facilitiesa       
Long-term care 2,928 (1.58) 6,518 (2.41) 9,446 (2.08)
Primary care 129,480 (69.98) 200,631 (74.33) 330,111 (72.56)
Secondary care 13,695 (7.40) 20,414 (7.56) 34,109 (7.50)
Tertiary care 38,923 (21.04) 42,342 (15.69) 81,265 (17.86)
Residential areaa       
 Urban 94,571 (44.60) 131,528 (42.21) 226,099 (43.17)
 Rural 117,488 (55.40) 180,104 (57.79) 297,628 (56.83)
Type of insurance       
 National Health Insurance 197,538 (93.14) 276,179 (88.60) 473,717 (90.44)
 Medical Aid, Veteran’s Relief 14,544 (6.86) 35,550 (11.40) 50,094 (9.56)
No. of OPDe visits within one year       
 0 or 1 191,787 (90.43) 285,795 (91.68) 477,582 (91.17)
 2–4 12,254 (5.78) 14,580 (4.68) 26,834 (5.12)
 ≥5 8,041 (3.79) 11,354 (3.64) 19,395 (3.70)
Comorbidities       
 Hypertension 126,438 (59.62) 209,452 (67.19) 335,890 (64.12)
 Diabetes mellitus 71,857 (33.88) 104,600 (33.55) 176,457 (33.69)
 Hyperlipidemia 71,736 (33.82) 123,920 (39.75) 195,656 (37.35)
 Cardiovascular disease (MIf or angina) 31,599 (14.90) 42,366 (13.59) 73,965 (14.12)
 Heart failure 22,570 (10.64) 43,549 (13.97) 66,119 (12.62)
 Dementia and cognitive impairment 17,334 (8.17) 36,658 (11.76) 53,992 (10.31)
 Cerebrovascular disease (TIAg) 45,832 (21.61) 69,881 (22.42) 115,713 (22.09)
 Peripheral artery disease (PADi) 38,829 (18.31) 65,826 (21.12) 104,655 (19.98)
 Chronic kidney disease 6,664 (3.14) 5,847 (1.88) 12,511 (2.39)
 Liver cirrhosis 51,766 (24.41) 67,601 (21.69) 119,367 (22.79)
 Chronic lung disease (asthma, COPDh) 75,575 (35.63) 105,636 (33.89) 181,211 (34.59)
 Cancer 39,935 (18.83) 38,203 (12.26) 78,138 (14.92)
 Depression 19,635 (9.26) 42,375 (13.59) 62,010 (11.84)
Charlson Comorbidity Index       
 0–1 83,991 (39.60) 122,379 (39.26) 206,370 (39.40)
 2–4 81,114 (38.25) 129,131 (41.42) 210,245 (40.14)
 ≥5 46,977 (22.15) 60,219 (19.32) 107,196 (20.46)
  1. aMissing data were excluded. Percentages (%) were calculated after excluding the missing data; bIncludes: emergency medicine, family medicine, general medicine, internal medicine, neurology, occupational & environmental medicine, pediatrics, psychiatry, rehabilitation medicine, and tuberculosis department; cIncludes: cardiothoracic surgery, dermatology, general surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedics, otorhinolaryngology, and urology; dIncludes: anesthesiology, dentistry, laboratory medicine, nuclear medicine, oriental medicine, pathology, preventive medicine, radiology, and radiation oncology; eOPD outpatient department; fMI, myocardial infarction; gTIA, transient ischemic attack; hCOPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; iPAD, peripheral artery disease