Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Health characteristics of subjects with and without stroke, MMSE < 18, or a history of Parkinson’s disease or cancer

From: Do commonly used frailty models predict mortality, loss of autonomy and mental decline in older adults in northwestern Russia? A prospective cohort study

Characteristic Without n = 471 (77.1) With n = 140 (22.9)
Demographic   
Sex   
 Male, n (%) 127 (27.0) 97 (69.3)
Age (years), mean ± SD 77.3 ± 5.8 79.4 ± 6.3
Mortality** 109 (23.1) 56 (40.0)
Medical problems   
Cardiovascular diseases, n (%):
 Coronary artery disease 371 (78.8) 113 (80.7)
 Myocardial infarction 52 (11.0) 25 (17.9)
 Arterial fibrillation 147 (31.2) 37 (26.4)
Multimorbidity, n (%)**:   
 0–3 418 (88.7) 108 (77.1)
 4–5 51 (10.8) 29 (20.7)
 6–10 2 (0.4) 3 (2.1)
BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD 28.9 ± 5.0 27.4 ± 4.5
MNA**   
  < 17 “Malnourished” 4 (0.8) 7 (5.0)
 17–23.5 “At risk of malnutrition” 79 (16.8) 27 (19.3)
  > 23.5 “Normal nutritional status” 388 (82.4) 106 (75.7)
 GDS-15 score >5, n (%)** 142 (30.1) 67 (47.9)
 SPBB score, mean ± SD 8 ± 3.2 7 ± 3.6
 Anemia, n (%) 90 (19.1) 27 (19.3)
 FEV1 < LLN, n (%) 70 (14.9) 19 (13.6)
 eGFR (MDRD) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, n (%) 82 (17.4) 33 (23.6)
Components of the Fried model   
 Weight loss, n (%) 61 (13.0) 24 (17.1)
 Weakness, n (%)** 81 (17.2) 41 (29.3)
 Poor endurance and energy, n (%)** 288 (61.1) 99 (70.7)
 Slowness, n (%) 115 (24.4) 32 (22.9)
 Low physical activity level, n (%) 191 (40.6) 83 (59.3)
Frailty categories according to Fried model, n (%)**   
 Robust 72 (15.6) 19 (14.0)
 Pre-frail 299 (64.9) 72 (52.9)
 Frail 90 (19.5) 45 (33.1)
Components of Puts model (Index)   
 Low body weight, n (%) 59 (12.6) 23 (16.5)
 Low peak expiratory flow, n (%) 86 (18.5) 31 (22.3)
 Poor cognition, n (%) 134 (28.5) 77 (55.0)
 Vision problem, n (%) 170 (36.1) 57 (40.7)
 Hearing problem, n (%) 125 (26.5) 37 (26.4)
 Incontinence, n (%) 190 (40.3) 60 (42.9)
 Low mastery, n (%) 99 (21.3) 32 (23.9)
 Depressive symptoms, n (%)** 200 (42.5) 82 (58.6)
 Comorbidity, n (%)** 135 (28.7) 71 (50.7)
Frailty categories according to Puts model, n (%)**   
 Robust 74 (16.1) 8 (6.0)
 Pre–frail 175 (38.1) 40 (30.1)
 Frail 210 (45.8) 85 (63.9)
Categories of frailty according to Steverink-Slaets model, n (%)**  
 Robust 213 (45.6) 45 (32,4)
 Pre–frail 116 (24.8) 34 (24.5)
 Frail 138 (29.6) 60 (43.2)
  1. Differences between the groups of participants were compared using Student’s t test (for continuous variables) or chi-squared tests (for categorical variables)
  2. BMI body mass index, MNA mini nutritional assessment, GDS-15 geriatric depression scale 15 items, SPPB short physical performance battery, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, LLN lower limit of normal, MDRD The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula
  3. **p < 0.05