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Table 1 Patient and caregiver characteristics according to diabetes status of the patient with AD dementia

From: Effect of diabetes on caregiver burden in an observational study of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease

Characteristica Overall N = 1495 Patients with diabetes N = 188 Patients without diabetes N = 1307 P-value
Patients
Age, yearsb 77.6 (7.65) 78.0 (6.97) 77.5 (7.74) 0.137
Sex, n (%) female 819 (54.8) 94 (50.0) 725 (55.5) 0.171
BMI, kg/m2 25.3 (4.07) 26.3 (4.20) 25.2 (4.02) <0.001
Marital status, n (%)     0.019
 Married/cohabiting 1076 (72.0) 122 (64.9) 954 (73.0)  
 Widowed 361 (24.2) 60 (31.9) 301 (23.0)  
 Divorced/separated 36 (2.4) 2 (1.1) 34 (2.6)  
 Never married 21 (1.4) 4 (2.1) 17 (1.3)  
Living location, n (%)     0.892
 Urban 1131 (75.7) 143 (76.1) 988 (95.7)  
 Rural 363 (24.3) 45 (23.9) 318 (24.3)  
Living in own home, n (%) 1428 (95.7) 179 (95.7) 1249 (95.7) 0.220
Living alone in own home, n (%) 253 (17.7) 33 (18.4) 220 (17.6) 0.017
Alcohol consumption, n (%) 885 (61.4) 91 (51.1) 794 (62.9) 0.043
Years of education 10.4 (3.15) 9.5 (2.84) 10.6 (3.17) <0.001
Time since AD diagnosis, years 2.2 (2.23) 2.1 (2.00) 2.3 (2.26) 0.268
Patients with comorbiditiesc, n (%) 1101 (73.6) 188 (100) 913 (69.9) 0.144
Diabetes drug use, n (%)   165 (87.8)   
Experienced a fall in last 3 months, n (%) 196 (13.1) 26 (13.8) 170 (13.0) 0.465
MMSE total score (range 0–30) 17.4 (6.34) 17.4 (6.14) 17.4 (6.37) 0.909
Neuropsychological assessment in last 6 months, n (%) 841 (56.4) 108 (57.4) 733 (56.2) 0.499
AD drug use, n (%)     0.750
No AD medications 212 (14.2) 29 (15.4) 183 (14.0)  
One AD medication 1121 (75.0) 141 (75.0) 980 (75.0)  
Two or more AD medications 162 (10.8) 18 (9.6) 144 (11.0)  
Psychiatric/hypnotic drug use, n (%) 393 (26.3) 44 (23.4) 349 (26.7) 0.656
Caregivers
Age, yearsb 67.3 (12.04) 65.0 (12.69) 67.7 (11.91) 0.012
Sex, n (%) female 958 (64.2) 139 (73.9) 819 (62.8) 0.005
Marital status, n (%)     0.403
 Married/cohabiting 1316 (88.1) 163 (86.7) 1153 (88.4)  
 Widowed 38 (2.5) 3 (1.6) 35 (2.7)  
 Divorced/separated 70 (4.7) 9 (4.8) 61 (4.7)  
 Never married 69 (4.6) 13 (6.9) 56 (4.3)  
Relationship to the patient, n (%)     0.001
 Wife 503 (33.7) 70 (37.2) 433 (33.2)  
 Husband 481 (32.2) 39 (20.7) 442 (33.9)  
 Child 405 (27.1) 69 (36.7) 336 (25.7)  
 Friend 20 (1.3) 2 (1.1) 18 (1.4)  
 Other 84 (5.6) 8 (4.3) 76 (5.8)  
Caregiver lives with the patient, n (%) 1135 (76.0) 141 (75.0) 994 (76.2) 0.781
Caregivers with medical conditionsc, n (%) 875 (58.6) 105 (55.9) 770 (59.0) 0.181
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, BMI body mass index, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination
  2. aData are presented as mean (SD) unless indicated otherwise. Percentages reported are for patients/caregivers with data available for each specific variable. Missing data for patients (overall): no missing data for age, sex, comorbidities, diabetes drug use, MMSE total score, AD drug use, psychiatric/hypnotic drug use; amount of missing data for other variables were BMI (n = 220), marital status (n = 1), living location (n = 1), living in own home (n = 3), living alone in own home (n = 67), alcohol consumption (n = 54), years of education (n = 6), time since AD diagnosis (n = 1), experienced a fall (n = 2), neuropsychological assessment (n = 3). Missing data for caregivers (overall) was n = 2 for all variables except medical conditions (n = 1; caregiver diabetes status not collected)
  3. bThe Case Report Form collected only birth year data, thus the missing month and day were imputed with 15 July. Age is the year part of the difference between the date of Informed Consent and the imputed birth date
  4. cData include the presence of diabetes
  5. P-values are for the comparison between patient diabetes groups (ANOVA for continuous variables, with country and diabetes status as factors, and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test for categorical variables, with stratification by country)
  6. P-values indicating statistically significant differences between patient diabetes groups (p < 0.05) are highlighted in bold type