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Table 6 Summary of characteristics and results of four included multicomponent interventions, reported in four studies (for further detail see Additional file 2)

From: Effectiveness of interventions to indirectly support food and drink intake in people with dementia: Eating and Drinking Well IN dementiA (EDWINA) systematic review

Study Design Setting, intervention type No. of participants Dementia diagnosed Dementia stage Dementia type Effects on nutrition and/or hydration status Effects on food, drink or nutrient intake Quality effect (including QoL or meaningful activity) and other outcomes Duration
Beck 2010 [67, 96] Denmark RCT Nursing home.
Multicomponent (nutrition, exercise & oral care)
I = 62 C = 59 NR NR NR ↑ BMI
↑ Weight
→ E intake
↑ Protein intake
→ Mortality
→ Cognitive status
→ Functional status
11 weeks
Boffelli 2004 [34] Italy BA Dementia unit.
Diet & environment modification, feeding assistance and supplements
29 Yes Severe various → BMI
→ weight
↑ albumin
→ Malnourished
NR NR 18 months
Keller 2003 [35, 97] Canada CCT LTC facilities.
Individualised food service, food modification, education and dietetic time
I = 33
C = 49
Yes NR AD & others ↑ Weight NR ↑ Dietetic time
→ Hospital days
→ Mortality
→ Infections
30 months
Simmons 2001 [36, 98] USA CCT Nursing Homes.
Staff assistance, prompting, food/drink service and exercise
I = 48 C = 15 NR NR NR → Serum osmolality, → BUN: creatinine ratio → Food & fluid intake NR 32 weeks
  1. For abbreviations see below Table 2