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Table 2 Baseline Characteristics of Sample: Overall and by Anticholinergic Usea (n = 61,451)

From: Anticholinergic medication use and falls in postmenopausal women: findings from the women’s health initiative cohort study

  Overall User of AC Non-use of AC
(n = 61,451) (n = 6940) (n = 54,511)
  N % N % N %
Age group at screening       
 65–69 31,008 50.5 3427 49.4 27,581 50.6
 70–74 21,491 35.0 2486 35.8 19,005 34.9
 75+ 8952 14.6 1027 14.8 7925 14.5
Race/ethnicity       
 White 54,015 87.9 6264 90.3 47,751 87.6
 Black 3572 5.8 314 4.5 3258 6.0
 Hispanic 1241 2.0 160 2.3 1081 2.0
 American Indian 200 0.3 34 0.5 166 0.3
 Asian/Pacific Islander 1594 2.6 82 1.2 1512 2.8
 Unknown 829 1.4 86 1.2 743 1.4
Number of falls in last 12 months (missing = 1658)       
 None 40,419 67.6 4194 61.8 36,225 68.3
 1 12,200 20.4 1442 21.3 10,758 20.3
 2 4946 8.3 734 10.8 4212 8.0
 3 or more 2228 3.7 415 6.1 1813 3.4
Fair or poor self-reported health 5426 8.8 1049 15.1 4377 8.0
Smoking status (missing = 698)       
 Never 32,298 53.2 3486 51.0 28,812 53.4
 Past 25,459 41.9 3017 44.1 22,442 41.6
 Current 2996 4.9 337 4.9 2659 4.9
Minutes per week spent walking (missing = 137)       
 0 min 19,045 31.1 2494 36.0 16,551 30.4
  >0–150 min 32,225 52.6 3529 51.0 28,696 52.8
  >150 min 10,044 16.4 903 13.0 9141 16.8
Alcohol intake       
 Non drinker 7375 12.0 852 12.3 6523 12.0
 Past drinker 11,657 19.0 1615 23.3 10,042 18.4
  <7 drinks per week 34,646 56.4 3665 52.8 30,981 56.8
 7+ drinks per week 7773 12.7 808 11.6 6965 12.8
BMI (kg/m2)       
 Underweight (<18.5) 619 1.0 58 0.8 561 1.0
 Normal (18.5–24.9) 21,919 35.7 2184 31.5 19,735 36.2
 Overweight (25.0–29.9) 22,341 36.4 2601 37.5 19,740 36.2
 Obese (≥30.0) 16,572 27.0 2097 30.2 14,475 26.6
Rand Physical Function score >90 (missing = 731) 16,870 27.8 1191 17.4 15,679 29.1
Urinary incontinence 19,244 31.3 2754 39.7 16,490 30.3
History of Parkinson’s disease 228 0.4 64 0.9 164 0.3
Insomnia Rating Scale       
 0–3 15,317 24.9 1296 18.7 14,021 25.7
 4–6 17,171 27.9 1698 24.5 15,473 28.4
 7–10 16,493 26.8 2034 29.3 14,459 26.5
  ≥11 12,470 20.3 1912 27.6 10,558 19.4
Depression (Burnham score >0.06) 5230 8.5 941 13.6 4289 7.9
Treated diabetes (oral or insulin) 2962 4.8 454 6.5 2508 4.6
Alzheimer Disease 35 0.1 2 0.03 33 0.1
Arthritis 34,728 56.5 4746 68.4 29,982 55.0
Anti-epileptic use 605 1.0 152 2.2 453 0.8
Benzodiazepine receptor agonist use 2563 4.2 860 12.4 1703 3.1
Antidepressant use 1710 2.8 409 5.9 1301 2.4
Antipsychotic use 54 0.1 27 0.4 27 0.1
Number of psychoactive meds       
 0 57,378 93.4 5723 82.5 51,655 94.8
 1 3666 6.0 1072 15.5 2594 4.8
 2+ 407 0.7 145 2.1 262 0.5
Dizziness (moderate/severe) (missing = 156) 1829 3.0 412 6.0 1417 2.6
Low back pain (moderate/severe) 12,719 20.7 2160 31.1 10,559 19.4
Vision problem uncorrected (moderate/severe) 3560 5.8 550 7.9 3010 5.5
WHI Participation       
 Hormone therapy trial 10,986 17.9 1180 17.0 9806 18.0
 Diet modification trial 16,497 26.9 1754 25.3 14,743 27.1
 Calcium vitamin D trial 12,706 20.7 1272 18.3 11,434 21.0
 Observational study 36,723 59.8 4288 61.8 32,435 59.5
  1. Abbreviation: AC anticholinergic
  2. aMissing value is 0 unless otherwise specified