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Table 3 Overview of included articles

From: Exploring psychosocial interventions for people with dementia that enhance personhood and relate to legacy- an integrative review

Reference Psychosocial intervention Article type/Brief summary Generated theme
1. Benbow B. (2014) Design features for resident engagement and meaningful activity, Canadian Nursing Home, 25(4): 4–8 [68] - Reminiscence; Design features for example building lifestyle stations which will stimulate particular memories and influence increased engagement in activities - Theoretical
- Literature review of empirical and practice-based recommendations on designing residential environments, e.g., residential homes, that will facilitate meaningful activities.
- De-emphasising dementia illness and deterring the view of people as passive recipients of care
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Offering aspects of legacy
Facilitating meaningful engagement
2. Buse C. and Twigg J. (2014) Women with dementia and their handbags: Negotiating identity, privacy and “home” through material culture, Journal of Aging Studies, 30, 14–22 [69] - Reminiscence (using clothing and handbags to stimulate memories and access to personal histories). - Empirical
- Part of ESRC funded UK study on Dementia and Dress.
- Used observations and qualitative interviews. “Wardrobe interviews” were also conducted- interviewing people next to their wardrobes.
- Sample 32 case studies with dementia (9 men and 23 women).
-Female participants of different socio-economic backgrounds- 10 lived in their own homes; 13 in care homes.
- Used reminiscence groups,based on idea that handbags are linked to memories and identities, reacquainting women with happier times.
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Offering aspects of legacy
3. Chaudhury H. (2003) Quality of Life and Place-Therapy, Journal of Housing For the ElderlyJournal of Housing For the Elderly, 17 (1-2_: 85–103 [67] Place-Therapy; Reminiscence - Empirical
- Study exploring reminiscence of personally meaningful places from the past for nursing residents cognitively impaired and non-cognitively impaired).
- Residents from four different nursing homes; Interviews with 13 residents with dementia, 15 family members of residents with dementia; and 8 residents with no cognitive impairments
- Reminiscing encouraged by the narrative of lived experiences elicited from places.
- Article describes place-therapy as a potential therapeutic intervention, but it would need to be implemented as an ongoing activity to allow better evaluation.
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Offering aspects of legacy
Facilitating meaningful engagement
4. Chung JCC. (2009) An intergenerational reminiscence programme for older adults with early dementia and youth volunteers: values and challenges, Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 259–264 [78] Reminiscence therapy; Life story work - Empirical
Pre and post one group design was used; 49 older participants with early dementia and 117 youth volunteers from Hong Kong
- Older participants were assigned to 2 youth participants and all took part in a 12-session reminiscence programme.
- Youth participants were facilitators
who also helped the older participants to create a personal life story book
- Findings revealed that this intergenerational reminiscence programme had mutual benefits for both participants.
- Findings were based mostly on feedback from youth participants around their opinions of the reminiscence programme.
- More detailed analysis and discussion around gains for the older participants would be helpful
Offering aspects of legacy
5. Cohen GD. (2002) Familiar activities, videos can help patients cope with memory loss, Geriatrics, 57(3): 62-65 [61] Life story work; video biographies - Theoretical
- Literature review looking at nonmedical interventions that can bring about patient satisfaction.
- Video biographies are explored as a way of conveying the person’s life history to families, friends and volunteers and encourage these latter groups to visit.
Offering aspects of legacy
Facilitating meaningful engagement
6. Cooney A., Hunter A., Murphy K., et al. (2014) “Seeing me through my memories”: a grounded theory study on using reminiscence with people with dementia living in long-term care, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23, 3564–3574 [71] Reminiscence -Empirical
- Grounded Theory using in-depth interviews with residents with dementia (n = 11), relatives (n = 5), healthcare assistants (n = 10), nurses (n = 9), and nurse managers (n = 3)- exploring their perceptions about reminiscence.
- Study participants were recruited from long-term care facilities where reminiscence was being used.
- The theory generated a theory “seeing me through my memories”, which highlights the way in which reminiscence and engaging with the patient allowed the staff to see the person and enhance personhood.
Offering aspects of legacy
Facilitating meaningful engagement
7. Crete- Nishihata M., Baecker RM., Massimi M., et al. (2012) Reconstructing the Part: Personal Memory Technologies Are Not Just Personal and Not Just for Memory, Human-Computer Interaction, 27 (1–2): 92–123 [63] Life story work- using personal memory technologies - Empirical
- Study of 12 participants with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and family members
- DVD-based Multimedia Biographies (MBs) capturing events, people, and places from participants’ past.
- MB content included photographs, home movies, documents, music and narration. Participants and family members contributed to content
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Offering aspects of legacy
Facilitating meaningful engagement
8. Damianakis T., Crete-Nishihata MC., Smith KL., et al. (2009) The Psychosocial Impacts of Multimedia Biographies on Persons With Cognitive Impairments, The Gerontologist, 50 (1): 23–35 [64] Life story work - Empirical
- Multimedia biographers and social workers conducted interviews with 12 family members of people with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) to gain insight into patients’ life histories and build Multimedia Biographies (MBs).
- Also collected were archival materials to contribute to life histories.
Offering aspects of legacy
Facilitating meaningful engagement
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
9. Dempsey L., Murphy K., Cooney A., et al. (2014) Reminiscence in dementia: A concept analysis, Dementia, 13(2): 176–192 [100] Reminiscence Therapy - Theoretical
- Concept analysis; Literature review
- Useful to define “reminiscence” so that an operational definition can be generated and to allow it to be developed in dementia care.
- Beyond the concept analysis, the article offers some exploration of the use of reminiscence as a therapeutic intervention for people with dementia.
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Facilitating meaningful engagement
10. Fels DI. And Astell AJ. (2011) Storytelling as a Model of Conversation for People With Dementia and Caregivers, American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias, 26 (7): 535–541 [90] Storytelling - Empirical
- Study applies a storytelling conventional model to verbal reminiscences of older people with dementia.
- 27 older adults with dementia were recruited from a day care centre and social work department care home.
- Used photographs of 6 different annual events (Christmas, Easter, Burns Night, New Year, Birthdays, Holidays). Participants were shown a series of 6 photographs and were encouraged to disclose memories of each event. The interviewer was able to guide participants where necessary.
Offering aspects of legacy
11. Hagens C., Beaman A., and Ryan EB. (2003) Reminiscing, Poetry Writing, and Remembering Boxes, Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 27(3–4): 97–112 [52] Reminiscence; Poetry writing -Empirical
- Reminiscence sessions were carried out with 5 cognitively-impaired older adults. Their words and phrases were structured into poetry to convey their “essence”.
- Information elicited from these session was used to build personal Remembering Boxes, containing meaningful objects and writings,
- Participants were 5 nursing home residents (1 man; 4 women) who had some level of cognitive impairment.
- 7 group sessions were conducted, lasting for about an hour, and tasking place is “casual” settings. These preceded or proceeded interviews, with the aim to further explore meaningful memories.
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Facilitating meaningful engagement
12. Gibb H., Morris CT., and Gleisberg J. (1997) A therapeutic programme for people with dementia, International Journal of Nursing Practice, 3, 191–199 [70] Reminiscence -Empirical
- Reports on a trial programme incorporating Tai Chi and subsequent reminiscence sessions used on 9 people with moderately advanced dementia.
- Analysis focuses on the stories told by the people and aims to understand the purpose of storytelliing for them.
- Participants were 9 older residents of a nursing home. 56 % had multi-infarct dementia; 44 % had Alzheimer’s Disease.
- 13 research sessions were conducted twice a week over 7 weeks.
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
13. Heathcote J. (2010) Paws for thought: involving animals in care, Nursing & Residential Care, 12(2): 145–148 [66] Animal assisted intervention/Animal assisted therapy/Pet therapy - Theoretical
- literature review around the benefits of how animals can impact on residents in nursing homes and how pets can be used in therapy.
- Cautions/ negative aspects are also explored
- Article provides some guidance for staff who may want to bring a resident animal.
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Facilitating meaningful engagement
14. Heathcote J. and Clare M. (2014) Doll therapy: therapeutic or childish and inappropriate, Nursing & Residential Care, 16 (1): 22–26 [57] Doll therapy - Theoretical
- Literature review exploring the benefits and controversial aspects of doll therapy on people with dementia.
- Ethical issues are also addressed, e.g., whether it is deceitful, patronising, dignity-reducing to have dolls and allow people to believe they are real babies.
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Facilitating meaningful engagement
15. Higgins P. (2010) Using dolls to enhance the wellbeing of people with dementia in residential care, Nursing Times, 106 (39): 18–20 [65] Doll therapy - Theoretical
- Literature review on how dolls can enhance wellbeing of people with dementia in residential care.
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Facilitating meaningful engagement
16. Holm A., Lepp M. and Ringsberg KC. (2005) Dementia: involving patients in storytelling- a caring intervention. A pilot study, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 14, 256–263 [101] Storytelling - Empirical
- Pilot study exploring the therapeutic role of storytelling in patients with dementia.
- Participants were 6 patients (5 women, 1 man), who had intermediate and severe dementia. Three female paid caregivers also participated.
- Participants met on 6 occasions within 2 months. Each meeting involved participants gathering in a circle and being told a story by the leader.
Offering aspects of legacy
Facilitating meaningful engagement
17. Ingersoll-Dayton B., Spencer B., Kwak M., Scherrer K., Allen RS., and Campbell R. (2013) The Couples Life Story Approach: A Dyadic Intervention for Dementia, Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 56: 3, 237–254 [79] - Couples Life Story Approach (adapted from Legacy Therapy); Life story work; Reminiscence
- Usually involves one-hour sessions over five weeks
- Empirical
- Couples (of which one partner has dementia), reminisce about their relationship story using photographs and mementoes (postcards, newspaper clippings, wedding vows) and develop a book
- Intervention engages both care recipient and caregiver, and endeavours to focus on meaningful engagement and shared communication
- Final study sample couples (n = 20); Study conducted in couples’ homes; family member home; care retirement community
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Offering aspects of legacy
Facilitating meaningful engagement
18. Kasl-Godley J. and Gatz M. (2000) Psychosocial interventions for individuals with dementia: an integration of theory, therapy, and a clinical understanding of dementia [18] Various including focus on Reminiscence and Life Review - Theoretical
- integrative review on six psychosocial interventions for individuals with dementia.
- Interventions described in terms of theoretical underpinnings, techniques and relatable empirical evidence.
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
19. McDermott O., Orrell M. and Ridder HM. (2014) The importance of music for people with dementia: the perspectives of people with dementia, family carers, staff and music therapists, Aging & Mental Health, 18(6): 706–716 [89] Music-based interventions - Empirical
- Qualitative study exploring the importance and meaning of musical experiences for people with dementia
- Focus groups and interviews conducted with care home residents with dementia and their families; day hospital clients with dementia; care home staff; music therapists
- Residents from 2 NHS care homes (Home A- N = 45; Home B- N = 24); Staff were those who provide day-to-day care to residents; Family members were those who had significant contact with residents
Facilitating meaningful engagement
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
20. McKeown J., Clarke A., Ingleton C., Ryan T. and Repper J. (2010) The use of life story work with people with dementia to enhance person-centred care, International Journal of Older People Nursing, 5, 148–158 [72] Life story work - Empirical
- Multiple case study design used, including interviews, observations and conversations with older people with dementia (n = 4), family carers and care staff within an NHS Health and Social Care Trust.
- Focuses on how life story work enhances person-centred care for individuals with dementia
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Facilitating meaningful engagement
21. McKeown J., Clarke A. and Repper J. (2006) Life story work in health and social care: systematic literature review, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 55(2): 237–247 [85] Life story work (LSW) - Theoretical
- systematic literature review on life story work in health and social care practice
- Staff views frequently explored, but sparse evidence around patient and carer perceptions.
Offering aspects of legacy
Facilitating meaningful engagement
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
22. McKeown J.,Ryan T., Ingleton C., Clarke A. (2015) “You have to be mindful of whose story it is”: The challenges of undertaking life story work with people with dementia and their family carers, Dementia, 14(2): 238–256 [81] Life story work - Empirical
- Case study analysis to gain insight into experiences of using life story work in one NHS Mental Health and Social Care Trust (across four different NHS care settings).
- Participants were people with dementia (n = 4), family carers and care staff
- Data collection comprised of semi-structured interviews, observations, conversations and field notes
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
23. Moos I. and Björn A. (2006) Use of life story in the institutional care of people with dementia: a review of intervention studies, Ageing and Society, 26, 431–454 (come back to) [93] Life story; Reminiscence - Theoretical
- review of 28 intervention studies that endeavoured to explore the benefits of life story for nursing home residents with dementia (in particular looking at links to residents’ sense of identity).
- Papers published between 1990 and 2003
- Interventions were divided into 3 groups: Interventions to raise self-esteem and self-integration; Interventions to change life quality; Interventions to change behaviour
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Facilitating meaningful engagement
Offering aspects of legacy
24. Pringle A. and Somerville S. (2013) Computer-assisted reminiscence therapy, Mental Health Practice, 17(4): 34–37 [86] Reminiscence therapy (computer-assisted) - Empirical
- Describes the early development stages of a pilot study looking at using new technology in reminiscence therapy in for people with dementia in inpatient settings (n = 8).
- This involves a tablet device containing a reminiscence file for each patient. The files may encompass photographs, films, song playlists and music.
- Three sessions were carried out, led by a member of staff. The 1st session used structured conversation, 2nd used a memory book; 3rd used the computer tablet only
Offering aspects of legacy
25. Russell C. and Timmons S. (2009) Life story work and nursing home residents with dementia, Nursing Older People, 21(4): 28–32 [94] Life story work - Empirical
- Using narrative research methodology, the stories of 5 nursing home residents with dementia were analytically reconstructed.
- Participants were over the age of 65 years and had mild to moderate symptoms of dementia.
- Unstructured interviews were used, which were recorded and transcribed verbatim with ideas also written down.
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
26. Savundranayagam MY., Dilley LJ. and Basting A. (2011) StoryCorps’ Memory Loss Initiative: Enhancing personhood for storytellers with memory loss, Dementia, 10(3): 415–433 [62] Life story work - Empirical
- Study around the American StoryCorps’ Memory Loss Initiative for collecting oral histories of people with memory loss.
- Each conversation told through StoryCorps is recorded and produced on a broadcast-quality CD. This is archived at the Library of Congress, following participants’ permission.
- Investigates to interview experience (specifically follow-up interviews) of people with memory loss (n = 42) and their family members (n = 27) In Chicago and New York, America.
Facilitating meaningful engagement
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Offering aspects of legacy
27. Scherrer KS., Ingersoll-Dayton B. and Spencer B. (2013) Constructing Couples’ Stories: Narrative Practice Insights from a Dyadic Dementia Intervention, Clinical Social Work Journal, 42, 90–100 [96] Couples Life Story Approach - Empirical
- Exploring the effects of a 5 week structured dyadic intervention to provide couples with a chance for meaningful engagement, to explore their strengths, to enhance communication and to encourage them to reflect on their shared experiences.
- Sample was 20 couples (40 individuals), one of whom had memory loss.
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Offering aspects of legacy
28. Subramaniam P., Woods B. and Whitaker C. (2013) Life review and life story books for people with mild to moderate dementia: a randomised controlled trial, Aging & Mental Health, 18 (3): 362–375 [95] Life review - Empirical
- Evaluation of the effect of different pathways for producing a life story book (LSB) for people with dementia.
- Participants were 23 people with dementia in care homes
- RCT with two intervention arms: 1) 12 individual life review sessions and co-creating a LSB; 2) A personal LSB created by their relatives as a “gift”.
- Results suggested no significant difference in quality of life between the two groups six weeks after the LSB had been received (F(1,20) = 0.08, p = 0.77). But quality of life had improved for both groups.
- There was significant between-group difference immediately after the life review sessions had been carried out but before the LSBs were received (F(1, 20) = 5.11, p = 0.035).
- Regardless of pathway, production of LSBs led to improved quality of relationships (rated by relatives) (F(2, 39) = 19.37, p < 0.001).
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
29. Thompson R. (2011) Using Life Story Work to enhance care, Nursing Older People, 23(8): 16- 21 [54] Life Story Work - Theoretical
- literature review on the notion of life story work and tools used to elicit information about the person.
- Benefits for people with dementia, family members and staff are highlighted.
- Barriers are also acknowledged, and include lack of time, support, resources, skills and confidence.
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
30. Williams BR., Blizard TI., Goode PS., et al. (2014) Exploring the affective dimension of the life review process: Facilitators’ interactional strategies for fostering personhood and social value among older adults with early dementia, Dementia, 13(4): 498–524 [80] Life review - Empirical
- Study based on individual one-on-one conversational sessions with community-dwelling military veterans (n = 12) with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and early dementia.
- A life review workbook was used to support the conversations, which had been produced by the Hospice Foundation of America.
- Participants had two to four life review sessions, which were recorded. Informal caregivers could be present.
- Each session was a maximum of 2 h.
- Interviews were conducted in a private office in the veterans’ “Medical Center” (n = 10), or in the veterans’ place of residence (n = 2)
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Facilitating meaningful engagement
31. Alzheimer Scotland- Action on Dementia (2014) Annual review 2013–14, The Scottish Government [75] Personalised profile forms- “Getting to know me” - Grey literature
- Discusses the development and use of the “Getting to know me” form by NHS Lanarkshire
- Insight from a Dementia Nurse Consultant working for NHS Lanarkshire, to explain how it is used in practice
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
32. Alzheimer Scotland- Action on Dementia (2013) Dementia in Scotland, Winter 2012/13, Issue 77 [76] Personalised profile forms- “Getting to know me” - Grey literature
- Discusses the use of personalised profile forms within NHS Lanarkshire- “Getting to know me”.
- Used by Band 6 nurses (Charge Nurses and Deputy Charge Nurses) to look at their strategies for improving the experiences of people with dementia and their families in hospitals.
- Explores how using “Getting to know me” in practice has informed nurses’ care and allowed them to use the information to use strategies for dealing with difficult situation
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
33. Health Improvement Scotland (2012) Announced Inspection Report- care for older people in acute hospitals- Hairmyres Hospital, NHS Lanarkshire, Scotland: Health Improvement Scotland [77] Personalised profile forms- “Getting to know me” - Grey literature
- Reports on an announced inspection looking at the care of older people in acute hospitals
- Highlights that NHS Lanarkshire is piloting (at the time of publishing) the “Getting to know me” document.
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
34. Kane, M. (2012) My life until the end- Dying well with dementia, Alzheimer’s Society [74] Personalised profile forms – “This is me” - Grey literature
- Report exploring seven key issues that need to be taken account for people with dementia at end of life: Public awareness; Care planning and proxy decision making; Dignity; Pain; Withholding and withdrawing treatment; Emotional and spiritual concerns; Place of care and death
- The report is informed by semi-structured interviews with former carers (n = 25), current carers (n = 10), and people with dementia (n = 3).
- Further insight was provided by Alzheimer’s Society colleagues working with people with dementia.
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
35. Robinson P. and Tyndale-Biscoe J. (2014) What makes a top hospital? Dementia care- report 7, Warwickshire: Caspe Healthcare Knowledge Systems (CHKS) [73] Personalised profile forms- “This is me” - Grey literature
- Report outlining recommendations for hospitals to enable them to deliver better care for people with dementia
- Endorses the use of “This is me” document, which was developed by the Northumberland Acute Care and Dementia Group with support from the Royal College of Nursing.
- Although initially developed for people with dementia going into hospital, it is appropriate for use in any setting where professional care is being received.
Acknowledging the person behind the patient
Facilitating meaningful engagement
36. Royal College of Nursing (RCN) (2013) Dementia- Commitment to the care of people with dementia in hospital settings, London: RCN [55] Personalised profile forms- “This is me” - Grey literature
- Resource providing guidance to people working in hospital settings to help them to deliver high quality care for people with dementia and their carers.
- Includes brief discussion of “This is me”, and considers it a version of life story work.
Offering aspects of legacy
Acknowledging the person behind the patient