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Table 4 The focus group participants’ recommendations of the design of the SALIG device for persons with cognitive impairment presented according to the seven principles for universal design

From: First steps in designing an all-in-one ICT-based device for persons with cognitive impairment: evaluation of the first mock-up

The seven principles for universal design The focus group participants recommendations of the design (n = 14)
1. Equitable use The design should not stigmatise
The design should be attractive to the users
The design should be age-relevant
2. Flexibility in use Flexible design
Compatible with other types of technologies
3. Simple and intuitive use Require minimal new learning
Easy to use and understand
Self-instructive
Not require a chain of actions
Step-by-step instructions should be easy to understand
Give feedback on all actions
Consistent navigation and design
Do not use one button for two functions
Arrows and drop lists should not be used
Require minimal maintenance
4. Perceivable information Display only necessary and relevant information
Clear and simple text
Text message displayed in the middle of the screen
Colour alone should not carry information
Similar language and concepts
Large, easy to understand standardised graphical symbols
Blinking, animated icons or graphics should not be used
Headlines included in pictures
Upper and lowercase letters
Same font
Italic font should not be used
Possibility to choose large fonts
Clear letter spacing between each character
Shadow effect should not be used
Light background with black text
High level of contrast
Buttons should be clear and large
Colour shifting should not be used
Patterned background should not be used
Good sunlight readability
Different modes for reminders (alarm signal, text or voice message)
Different ways of being alerted (light, jingle
Good sound quality
Possibility to adjust volume
Clear indication for low battery level
5. Tolerance for error Provide warnings of hazards and errors
Give visual or/and verbal feedback for each step that is performed
Must be reliable and robust
Give guidance questions that could be answered by yes/no buttons or voice commands
Prevent mistakes
Correct errors
6. Low physical effort Comfortable to use
Possibility to adjust the pressure sensitivity of the touch-screen
Cause a minimum of fatigue and be easy to handle for people with decreased physical strength and inferior fine motor coordination
7. Size and space for approach and use Have a cover that allows variations in hand and grip size