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Table 5 Voluntary Step Execution Test times and the preparation phase times during single task and dual task conditions (mean ± SD). Values are means ± SD (95 % confidence interval for means). A full Bonferroni correction (α-level 0.05/2 = 0.025) was used for each of the two different task conditions (single and dual task condition) to achieve an overall significance level of 0.05

From: Unexpected perturbations training improves balance control and voluntary stepping times in older adults - a double blind randomized control trial

  Group Baseline post-test ANOVA (Baseline to post-test) T ANOVA (Baseline to post-test) T x G
Single task condition
 Reaction Time (ms) Intervention 215 ± 40 194 ± 36 F = 0.002 F = 2.187
  control 219 ± 70 206 ± 57 p = 0.968 p = 0.057
 Foot Contact Time (ms) Intervention 1065 ± 16 993 ± 138 F = 0.474 F = 11.325
  control 1027 ± 147 1010 ± 143 p = 0.495 p = 0.002
Dual Task condition
 Reaction Time (ms) Intervention 412 ± 174 346 ± 99 F = 1.881 F = 7.322
  control 354 ± 98 339 ± 100 p = 0.179 p = 0.010
 Foot Contact Time (ms) Intervention 1355 ± 243 1224 ± 172 F = 0.439 F = 9.857
  control 1250 ± 165 1240 ± 171 p = 0.512 p = 0.003
  1. Note: Comparison of baseline and post-intervention between the two groups based on repeated measures ANOVA (Test × Group). Abbreviations: G group, T time, ms milliseconds