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Table 3 The effect of balance training on traditional sway Parameters under eyes closed condition. Values are means±1 SD (95 % confidence interval for means). A full Bonferroni correction (α-level 0.05/4 = 0.0125) was used for each of the four tests to achieve an overall significance level of 0.05

From: Unexpected perturbations training improves balance control and voluntary stepping times in older adults - a double blind randomized control trial

  Group Baseline post-test ANOVA (Baseline to post-test) T ANOVA (Baseline to post-test) T x G
ML-sway (mm) Experimental 47.9 ± 15.3 44.6 ± 15.5 F = 0.215 F = 2.247
  Control 41.4 ± 8.8 40.5 ± 8.6 p = 0.792 p = 0.142
AP-sway (mm) Experimental 38.6 ± 13 35.8 ± 10 F = 0.694 F = 5.315
  Control 33.8 ± 8 33.9 ± 7 p = 0. 711 p = 0.012
Velocity(mm2/sec) Experimental 37.7 ± 12 34.2 ± 10 F = 0.086 F = 2.609
  Control 35.1 ± 8 35.0 ± 9 p = 0.770 p = 0.115
Sway Area (mm2) Experimental 169.3 ± 9 148 ± 76 F = 0.056 F = 2.549
  Control 136.6 ± 48 135 ± 5 p = 0.815 p = 0.119
  1. Note: Comparison of baseline and post-intervention between the two groups based on repeated measures ANOVA (Test × Group). Abbreviations: G group, T time, mm millimeters, s seconds