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Table 4 Professionals providing supportive actions for informal caregivers, supportive actions and level of education*

From: Formal support for informal caregivers to older persons with dementia through the course of the disease: an exploratory, cross-sectional study

   ISCED level 7: Master’s or equivalent, vocational ISCED level 6: Bachelor’s or equivalent, vocational ISCED level 5: Short-cycle tertiary education, vocational ISCED level 4: Post-secondary non-tertiary, vocational ISCED level 3: Upper secondary, vocational
Counseling: Informal and formal, professionals or agencies providing support to persons with dementia (PwDs) and their family. EE      
FI   RN, RN dem   Aux-N  
FR Psychologist     
DE Case manager2 psychol Case manager2, SW SEN   
NL Psychologist Case manager2, RN dem    
ES MD ger, psych, neuro, GP, psychol RN, SW    
SE MD ger, psych, neuro, GP, psychol     
E Psychologist RN, RN dem, psych, SW, OT    Support worker
Caregiver support: Organization where professionals provide support, such as counseling, individually and/or in groups, and provide home visits to informal caregivers. EE Psychologist SW    
FI   RN, RN dem   Aux-N  
FR   SW    
DE   Case manager2    
NL Psychologist Case manager2,, RN, SW   Ass-N  
ES GP, Psychologist RN,SW    
SE MD ger, psych, neuro, GP, Psychol    LPN  
E Psychologist RN, RN dem, psych, SW, OT    
Caregiver education: Training for informal caregivers providing care and service to PwDs. Education about needs and symptoms of dementia. EE MD RN, SW    
FI   RN, RN dem, SW   Aux-N  
FR MD-ger RN, SW    
DE   Case manager2    
NL   Case manager2, RN, SW    
ES GP, Psychologist RN, SW, OT    
SE   RN, RN dem, SW    
E Psychologist RN, RN dem, psych, SW    LPN
Informal caregivers – reimbursed: Informal caregiver employed by the public to provide care and service. EE      
FI   RN, RN dem, SW    
FR MD ger, GP SW    
DE      
NL NA1 NA1 NA1 NA1 NA1
ES   SW    
SE   SW    
E   SW    
Day care/day activity/day care center/day hospital: Clinic or agency providing social activities and activities to stimulate physical, mental, and intellectual functional ability, daytime EE      
FI GP RN, SW, Physio-T    
FR MD-ger. Psychologist RN, SW, OT, Physio-T    
DE SW, Physio-T SW, OT, Physio-T SEN Aux-N Ass-N
NL Multi-prof. team3     
ES MD-ger, psych, neuro, GP, Psychologist RN, SW, OT, Physio-T    Ass-N
SE   SW   Ass-N, LPN  
E MD-psych, Psychologist RN, RN dem, SW, OT, Physio-T   Ass-N  
Day care/day activity/day care center/day hospital specialized in dementia care: Clinic or agency, staff specialized in dementia care providing social activities and activities to stimulate cognitive ability, daytime. Only persons with dementia are admitted. EE   OT    
FI   RN, SW   Aux-N  
FR MD-ger. Psychologist RN, SW, OT, Physio-T    
DE Multi-prof. team3 Multi-prof. team3    
NL Multi-prof. team3 Multi-prof. team3    
ES MD-ger, psych, neuro, GP, psychol RN, SW, OT, Physio-T    
SE   SW   Ass-N, LPN  
E MD-ger, psych, Psychologist RN, RN dem, SW, OT, Physio-T    Ass-N, Support worker
Respite care: For older people, but not specific to those with dementia disease: residential care around the clock for relief to informal caregivers who provide care for a family member/close friend. EE   RN    
FI GP RN   Aux-N  
FR GP, MD-ger SW    
DE   SW, OT SEN, SEN dem   
NL Multi-prof. team3 Multi-prof. team3    
ES MD-ger, psych, neuro, GP, psychol RN, SW, OT, Physio-T    
SE GP RN   Ass-N, LPN  
E      Support worker
Respite care, specialized in dementia care: Residential specialized dementia care around the clock for relief to informal caregivers who provide care for a family member/close friend. In a nursing home or residential home. EE   RN    
FI GP RN   Aux-N  
FR GP, MD-ger SW    
DE      
NL Multi-prof. team3 Multi-prof. team3    
ES      
SE GP RN   Ass-N, LPN  
E   RN, RN dem    Support worker
Respite care at home: Care at home for relief to informal caregivers who are caring for a family member/close friend. EE      
FI     Aux-N  
FR      
DE      
NL Multi-prof. team3 Multi-prof. team3    
ES      
SE     Ass-N, LPN  
E   RN, RN dem    Support worker
  1. *International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), 2011
  2. 1NA not applicable, i.e., the support was available, but not suitable in a specific stage of the disease or not suitable at all
  3. 2Case managers and home health experts had some health care training at ISCED level 6 and, in addition, special training for the task
  4. 3The multi-professional teams commonly consist of a physician, psychologist, registered nurse, assistant nurse, occupational therapist, and physiotherapist
  5. DE Germany, E England, EE Estonia, ES Spain, FI Finland, FR France, NL the Netherlands, SE Sweden
  6. For abbreviations of professional titles and qualifications, see the List of abbreviations
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