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Table 2 Categorization of professional providers of supportive actions, according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED)*

From: Formal support for informal caregivers to older persons with dementia through the course of the disease: an exploratory, cross-sectional study

ISCED LEVEL: At or above ISCED level General health care training Specialized health care training Specialized training in dementia
7: Master’s or equivalent, vocational Psychologist (psychol), provides counseling and help to people with psychological problems GP, physician who treats patients within a district for all types of diseases MD geriatrics (MD-ger), geriatrician or psycho-geriatrician specialized in geriatrics
MD psychiatry1 (MD-psych)/Old Age Psychiatrist, specialized in psychiatry
Social worker (SW), provides staff management for residential care or home help service MD neurology1 (MD-neuro), specialized in neurology
MD-internal medicine, specialized in internal medicine
Physiotherapist, provides rehabilitation to identify and improve, e.g., disabled movement and function
6: Bachelor’s or equivalent, vocational Social worker, provides staff management for residential care or home help service Community psychiatric registered nurse, (RN-comm-psych), supports older people at home and in nursing/residential homes. Specialized in psychiatry. RN specialized in dementia (RN dem), has an overall responsibility for dementia care in an area/municipality. Provides counseling, supervision, and assessments, and mediates contacts. Education at advanced level: Care of the elderly (1 year Master), District nurse (1 year Master), Psychiatric care (1 year Master).
Home help officer, carries out needs assessment prior to decision about home services and care
Registered nurse (RN), provides care and service including help with PADLs, medical treatments, and managing the nursing care team
Case manager, professional (nurse or social worker) function that may include finding and outreach, comprehensive assessment and care planning, coordination of service, service provision, monitoring, and evaluation, and, in addition, meeting special needs
Occupational therapist (OT), provides rehabilitation to achieve optimum level of functional ability. This may include adaptation of the home and providing aids and equipment to assist with managing everyday activities.
Physiotherapist2, provides rehabilitation to identify and improve, e.g., disabled movement and function.
Case manager, see “Specialized health care training”
5: Short-cycle tertiary education, vocational Registered nurses, not Bachelor’s level   State examined nurses specialized in dementia care
(SEN dem), not Bachelor’s level
State examined nurse (SEN), not Bachelor’s level
Occupational therapist, Bachelor’s level, provides rehabilitation to achieve optimum level of functional ability. This may include adaptation of the home and providing aids and equipment to assist in managing everyday activities.
4: Post-secondary non-tertiary, vocational Licensed practical nurse (LPN)/auxiliary nurse (Aux-N), provides care and service including help with IADLs and PADLs, and, in addition, minor medical treatment. Health care trained at secondary school level.   
3: Upper secondary, vocational Nurse aid/assistant nurse (Ass-N), provides care and service including help with IADLs and PADLs. Health care trained for <6 months (OECD 2005).   
Support worker (Supp-work), home carer, psychological supporter, or home trainer paid at enhanced nursing assistant/home carer rate. Social care/nursing trained at secondary level or trained on the job.
<3 Social worker assistant (SW-ass), performs some similar tasks as the social worker. Not trained, or trained on the job   
  1. *International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), 2011
  2. 1MD Psychiatry and MD Neurology: training in dementia is normally part of their special training
  3. 2Registered nurses, occupational therapists, and physiotherapists are trained at different levels in the eight participating European countries
  4. IADL instrumental activities of daily living, PADL practical activities of daily living
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