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Table 3 Longitudinal associations of cognitive appraisals and coping strategies with physical functioning; auto-regressive models tested with generalized estimated equations

From: The longitudinal association of cognitive appraisals and coping strategies with physical functioning in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity: a cohort study

  Range Auto-regressive model
Independent variable   Model 1b P-value Model 2c P-value
Cognitive appraisals     
 Consequences 0–10 −0.62 (-1.03; -0.20) 0.003 −0.54 (-1.02; -0.06) 0.027
 Concerns 0–10 −0.30 (-0.59; -0.01) 0.045 −0.21 (-0.54; 0.11) 0.195
 Emotional representations 0–10 −0.05 (-0.33; 0.23) 0.717 0.10 (-0.25; 0.45) 0.570
 Self-efficacya 6–60 0.26 (0.17; 0.36) <0.001 0.22 (0.12; 0.31) <0.001
 Catastrophizing 0–6 −0.87 (-1.41; -0.33) 0.002 −0.67 (-1.26; -0.07) 0.028
Cognitive coping      
 Ignoring paina 0–6 −0.02 (-0.53; 0.50) 0.953 −0.02 (-0.54; 0.49) 0.929
 Positive self-statementa 0–6 0.10 (-0.32; 0.53) 0.632 −0.01 (-0.44; 0.42) 0.956
Behavioural coping     
 Increasing activity levelsa 0–6 0.06 (-0.43; 0.54) 0.823 0.05 (-0.44; 0.54) 0.839
 Activity avoidance 5–20 −0.37 (-0.62; -0.12) 0.004 −0.32 (-0.57; -0.08) 0.008
  1. ahigher score is positive
  2. bmodel 1 = adjusted for time
  3. cmodel 2 = adjusted for time and time-independent covariates: age, gender and education and time-dependent covariates: pain intensity, anxiety and depression
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