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Table 2 Scores of the repeated measures over 18 months of cognitive appraisals, coping strategies, physical functioning, and time-dependent covariates

From: The longitudinal association of cognitive appraisals and coping strategies with physical functioning in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity: a cohort study

  Score range Baseline (n = 407) 6 months (n = 364) 12 months (n = 337) 18 months (n = 319)
Outcome      
 Physical functioninga 0–100 48.7 (25.8) 50.1 (27.4) 49.8 (27.5) 49.5 (27.4)
Cognitive appraisals     
 Consequences 0–10 5.3 (2.7) 5.1 (2.6) 4.9 (2.7) 4.8 (2.7)
 Concerns 0–10 5.1 (3.7) 5.5 (3.0) 5.2 (3.1) 5.2 (3.0)
 Emotional representations 0–10 4.2 (3.0) 4.3 (2.9) 3.9 (3.0) 4.0 (3.0)
 Self-efficacya 6–60 33.8 (12.5) 34.2 (13.5) 35.3 (13.1) 35.6 (12.8)
 Catastrophizing 0–6 1.8 (1.5) 1.9 (1.6) 1.8 (1.6) 1.8 (1.5)
Cognitive coping     
 Ignoring paina 0–6 3.0 (1.5) 2.9 (1.4) 3.1 (1.5) 3.0 (1.4)
 Positive self-statementa 0–6 3.5 (1.8) 3.5 (1.8) 3.4 (1.8) 3.4 (1.7)
Behavioural coping     
 Increasing activity levelsa 0–6 3.4 (1.7) 3.3 (1.6) 3.4 (1.6) 3.3 (1.6)
 Activity avoidance 5–20 12.2 (3.5) 12.1 (3.6) 12.2 (3.6) 12.0 (3.6)
Time-dependent covariates      
 Pain intensity 0–100 64.4 (17.3) 65.0 (18.5) 61.6 (19.8) 62.7 (19.4)
 Anxiety symptoms 0–21 5.1 (3.7) 5.4 (3.7) 4.9 (3.8) 4.9 (3.6)
 Depression symptoms 0–21 5.4 (3.5) 5.3 (3.6) 4.9 (3.5) 5.3 (3.9)
  1. ahigher score is positive
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