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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants by cognitive impairment

From: Interactive effects of diabetes and impaired kidney function on cognitive performance in old age: a population-based study

   Cognitive impairment
Characteristics Total sample No Yes P-value
No. of subjects 1,358 1,161 197  
Age (years), mean (SD) 68.6 (5.0) 68.23 (4.8) 70.90 (5.44) <0.001
Female, n (%) 821 (60.5) 671 (57.80) 150 (76.14) <0.001
Education level, n (%)     
 Illiterate 370 (27.25) 294 (25.32) 76 (38.58)  
 1–6 years 763 (56.19) 657 (56.59) 106 (53.81)  
 ≥7 years 225 (16.57) 210 (18.09) 15 (7.61) <0.001
Current smoking, n (%) 185 (13.62) 164 (14.13) 21 (10.66) 0.190
Alcohol drinking, n (%) 276 (20.63) 250 (21.87) 26 (13.33) 0.007
Physical activity, n (%) 214 (15.76) 195 (16. 80) 19 (9.64) 0.01
Stroke, n (%) 86 (6.33) 59 (5.08) 27 (13.71) <0.001
Hypertension, n (%) 1,072 (78.94) 914 (78.73) 158 (80.20) 0.640
Total cholesterol (mmol/l), mean (SD) 5.33 (1.05) 5.29 (1.04) 5.53 (1.09) 0.004
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 26.29 (3.76) 26.30 (3.68) 26.27 (4.20) 0.930
Depressive symptom, n (%) 271 (19.96) 213 (18.35) 58 (29.44) <0.001
Diabetes, n (%) 283 (20.84) 226 (19.47) 57 (28.93) 0.003
FPG (mmol/l), mean (SD) 5.70 (1.63) 5.66 (1.58) 6.02 (1.87) 0.004
eGFRcys (ml/min/1.73 m2), mean (SD) 78.30 (20.06) 79.38 (20.02) 71.95 (19.18) <0.001
  1. SD standard deviation, FPG fasting plasma glucose, BMI body mass index, eGFR cys cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate
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