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Table 2 Description of Cambridge Brain Sciences cognitive battery

From: Group-based exercise and cognitive-physical training in older adults with self-reported cognitive complaints: The Multiple-Modality, Mind-Motor (M4) study protocol

Task Name Cognitive Domain Brief Description Outcome Measure
1. Monkey Ladder Memory Sets of numbered squares are displayed all at the same time at random locations within an invisible 5x5 grid. After a variable interval, the numbers are removed leaving just the blank squares visible. A tone cues the participant to respond by clicking on the squares in ascending numerical sequence. Maximum level achieved
(Visuospatial working memory) The amount of squares presented increases or decreases by 1 after each trial depending on whether they responded correctly. The first trial contains 4 numbered squares.
2. Grammatical Reasoning Reasoning Problems of the form “The square is not encapsulated by the circle” are displayed on the screen and the participant must indicate whether the statement correctly describes a pair of objects displayed in the centre of the screen. Total score
(Verbal Reasoning) In order to achieve maximum points, the participant must solve as many problems as possible within the given time. The total score increases or decreases by 1 after each trial depending on whether they responded correctly.
3. Double Trouble Reasoning A coloured word is displayed at the top of the screen (e.g., the word RED drawn in blue ink). Participants must indicate which of two coloured words at the bottom of the screen describes the colour that the word at the top of the screen is drawn in. The colour word mappings may be congruent, incongruent, or doubly incongruent, depending on whether or not the colours that a given word describes matches the colour that it is drawn in. Total score
(Colour-Word Remapping) To gain maximum points, the participant must solve as many problems as possible within the given time. The total score increases or decreases by 1 after each trial depending on whether they responded correctly.
4. Odd One Out Reasoning A 3x3 grid of cells is displayed on the screen. Each cell contains a variable number of copies of a coloured shape. The features that make up the objects in each cell (colour, shape, number of copies) are related to each other according to a set of rules. The participant must deduce the rules that relate the object features and select the one cell whose contents do not correspond to those rules. Total correct
(Deductive Reasoning) To gain maximum points, the participant must solve as many problems as possible. If the response is correct, the total score increases by one point and the next problem is more complex. If the response is incorrect, the total score decreases by 1 point.
5. Spatial Span Blocks Memory 16 squares are displayed in a 4x4 grid. A subset of the squares flash in a random sequence at a rate of 1 flash every 900 ms. Subsequently, the mouse cursor is displayed and a tone cues the participant to repeat the sequence by clicking on the squares in the same order in which they flashed. Maximum level achieved
(Spatial Span) To gain maximum points, the participant must solve as many problems as possible. If the response is correct, the number of illuminated squares increases by one. If the response is incorrect, the number of illuminated squares decreases by 1. The first trial contains 4 illuminated squares.
6. Rotations Concentration In this variant, 2 grids of coloured squares are displayed to either side of the screen with 1 of the grids rotated by a multiple of 90°. When rotated, the grids are either identical or differ by the position of at least 1 square. In order to gain maximum points, the participant must indicate whether the grids are identical, solving as many problems as possible. Total score
(Spatial Rotations) If the response is correct, the total score increases by the number of squares in the grid and subsequent trials have more squares. If the response is incorrect, the total score decreases by the number of squares in the grid and subsequent trials have fewer squares. The first grids contain 4 coloured squares each.
7. Feature Match Task Concentration Two grids are displayed on the screen, each containing a set of abstract shapes. In half of the trials the grids differ by just one shape. In order to gain maximum points, the participant must indicate whether or not the grid contents are identical, solving as many problems as possible. Total score
If the response is correct, the total score increases by the number of shapes in the grid and the number of shapes in subsequent trials increases. If the response is incorrect the total score decreases by the number of shapes in the grid and subsequent trials have fewer shapes. The first grids contain four abstract shapes each.
8. Digit Span Memory Participants view a sequence of digits that appear on the screen one after another. Subsequently, participants are required to repeat the sequence of numbers by using the mouse cursor to click a series of numbered buttons that appear along the bottom of the screen. Maximum level achieved
If the response is correct, the total length of the sequence increases by 1. If the response is incorrect, the total length of the sequence decreases by 1. The first trial contains a four-digit sequence.
9. Hampshire Tree Task Planning Nine numbered beads are positioned on a tree shaped frame. The participant repositions the beads one-by-one so that they are configured in ascending numerical order running from left to right and top to bottom of the tree. Total score
(Spatial Planning) After each trial, the total score is incremented by adding the minimum number of moves required × 2 (the number of moves actually made), thereby rewarding efficient planning.
10. Paired Associates Memory Boxes are displayed at random locations on an invisible 5x5 grid. The boxes open one after another to reveal an enclosed object. Subsequently, the objects are displayed in random order in the centre of the grid and the participant must click on the boxes that contained them. Maximum level achieved
If the response is correct, the total number of objects increases by 1. If the response is incorrect, the total number of objects decreases by 1, and subsequent trials have fewer objects. The first trial contains 4 objects.
11. Polygons Concentration A pair of overlapping polygons is displayed on one side of the screen. In order to gain maximum points, the participant must indicate whether a polygon displayed on the other side of the screen is identical to one of the interlocking polygons, solving as many problems as possible. Total score
(Interlocking polygons) If responses are correct, the total score increases by the difficulty level and the differences between the polygons becomes increasingly subtle.
If the responses are incorrect, the total score decreases by the difficulty level and the difference between the polygons become more pronounced.
12. Spatial Search Planning Sets of boxes are displayed on the screen in random locations within an invisible 5x5 grid.
The participant must find a hidden “token” by clicking on the boxes one at a time to reveal their contents. When the token is found, it is hidden within another box.
Maximum level achieved
(Self-Ordered Search) If the response is correct, the total number of boxes increases by 1. If the response is incorrect, the total number of boxes decreases by 1, and subsequent trials have fewer boxes. The first trial contains 5 boxes.
  1. Note: All tasks are performed for a total of 5 minutes; three 90-second blocks, separated by two 15-second rest periods. During the rest periods, the neuropsychological tasks are hidden from view. Following each rest period, the task is returned to view, and participant continue from the last, correctly completed level of difficulty
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