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Table 1 Description of M2 and M4 interventions

From: Group-based exercise and cognitive-physical training in older adults with self-reported cognitive complaints: The Multiple-Modality, Mind-Motor (M4) study protocol

M2: Multiple-Modality Exercise Group
(Comparison Group)
M4: Multiple-Modality, Mind-Motor Exercise Group (Intervention Group)
Warm-up (5 minutes)
 o Light aerobics
 o Dynamic range of motion of the major joints
Warm-up (5 minutes)
 o Light aerobics
 o Dynamic range of motion of the major joints
Aerobic Exercise (20 Minutes)
 o Large rhythmical endurance activities (e.g., walking, marching, sequenced aerobics)
 o Keep HR continuously in target zone (i.e., not interval training)
 o Moderate to vigorous intensity
 o RPE: 5–8 on scale of 0–10
 o Participants to check HR ½ way through and at end of aerobic exercise.
Aerobic Exercise (20 Minutes)
 o Large rhythmical endurance activities (e.g., walking, marching, sequenced aerobics)
 o Keep HR continuously in target zone (i.e., not interval training)
 o Moderate to vigorous intensity
 o RPE: 5–8 on scale of 0–10
 o Participants to check HR ½ way through and at end of aerobic exercise.
Aerobic Cool Down (5 minutes)
 o Safely bringing heart rates down
Aerobic Cool Down (5 minutes)
 o Safely bringing heart rates down
Resistance Training (10 minutes)
 o Therabands, wall or chair exercises, core strengthening
 o Day 1 – Upper body focus
 o Day 2– Lower body focus
 o Day 3 – Core focus
Resistance Training (10 minutes)
 o Therabands, wall or chair exercises, core strengthening
 o Day 1 – Upper body focus
 o Day 2 – Lower body focus
 o Day 3– Core focus
Balance, Range of Motion & Breathing
(15 minutes)
 o Keep HR BELOW target zone
 o Dynamic, static and functional balance
 o Breathing and relaxation exercises
 o Finger exercises
 o Range of motion (e.g., arm circles)
Mind-Motor Training (15 minutes)
 o Keep HR BELOW target zone
 o Progressive, group-based, Square Stepping Exercise (SSE)
Stretching (5 minutes) Stretching (5 minutes)
TOTAL: 60 minutes
60 minutes Multiple-Modality Exercise
TOTAL: 60 minutes 45 minutes Multiple-Modality Exercise 15 minutes Mind-Motor Exercise
  1. Abbreviations: HR, heart rate; RPE, rating perceived exertion
  2. aNote: This table represents an individual session breakdown by group. Participants attended these structured 60-minute group-based exercise classes, 3 times per week for 24 weeks
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