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Table 2 Mean (95 % CI) musculoskeletal fitness- and balance test results stratified by age and sex

From: Musculoskeletal fitness and balance in older individuals (65–85 years) and its association with steps per day: a cross sectional study

Variable 65–69 70–74 75–79 80–85 Alla
  Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men
N 36 36 24 22 15 13 10 5 85 76
OLS (sec) 28.2 (22.3–34.2) 26.3 (20.3–32.3) 15.0 (7.8–22.2) 21.3 (13.7–28.9) 9.2 (0.01–18.3) 10.5 (1.0–20.0) 4.9 (−6.3–16.1) 2.0 (−15.8–19.7) 19.2 (15.4–23.0) 19.8 (15.7–23.8)a
All b 27.2 (23.1–31.4)d 18.0 (12.8–23.2)e 9.8 (3.2–16.4)f 4.2 (–5.3–13.7)g 19.5 (16.7–22.2)c
HG (kg) 27.3 (24.6–30.0) 44.3 (41.6–47.1) 24.2 (20.9–27.5) 40.8 (37.4–44.3) 25.5 (21.3–29.7) 42.7 (38.1–47.2) 21.9 (16.7–27.1) 37.1 (29.8–44.4) 25.6 (23.9–27.4) 42.4 (40.5–44.2)a,
All b 35.3 (33.4–37.2) 32.0 (29.7–34.4) 33.6 (30.5–36.6) 29.3 (25.1–33.5) 33.5 (32.3–34.8)c
SBE (sec) 73.4 (58.1–88.6) 59.2 (44.6–73.9) 66.5 (48.0–85.0) 54.7 (36.2–73.1) 48.4 (25.7–71.0) 28.6 (5.0–52.2) 49.3 (11.4–87.2) 2.1 (−57.8–62.1) 65.6 (55.6–75.7) 49.6 (39.5–59.7)a,
All b 66.4 (55.9–76.8)h 60.6 (47.7–73.6) 38.6 (22.4–54.8)i 32.4 (0.4–64.4) 57.7 (50.6–64.8)c
SR (cm) 23.5 (20.1–26.9) 14.1 (10.7–17.5) 19.2 (15.1–23.3) 14.2 (9.9–18.5) 17.1 (11.9–22.3) 14.3 (8.9–19.7) 15.9 (9.6–22.3) 4.6 (−5.6–14.7) 20.4 (18.2–22.6) 13.4 (11.1–15.8)a,
All b 18.9 (16.5–21.3) 16.8 (13.8–19.8) 15.8 (12.0–19.5) 11.3 (5.9–16.8) 17.1 (15.5–18.7)c
BSR (cm) −5.7 (−9.6--1.7) −12.9 (−16.8- -8.9) −8.8 (−13.5--4.0) −12.9 (−18.0- -7.8) −7.7 (−13.8- -1.7) −15.8 (−22.1- -9.6) −13.0 (−20.4- -5.7) −15.5 (−27.1- -3.8) −7.7 (−10.2--5.1) −13.8 (−16.4- -11.1)a, *
All b −9.1 (−11.9--6.4) −10.7 (−14.2--7.3) −11.6 (−15.9--7.3) −14.9 (−21.1--8.6) −10.5 (−12.4--8.7)c
BSL (cm) −11.2 (−15.2- -7.3) −19.7 (−23.7- -15.8) −11.4 (−16.2--6.7) −17.5 (−22.4- -12.6) −12.2 (−18.2- -6.2) −19.3 (−25.5- -13.1) −18.7 (−26.0- -11.3) −18.6 (−30.2- -7.0) −12.3 (−14.8- -9.8) −19.0 (−21.7- -16.4)a, *
All b −15.3 (−18.1--12.6) −14.3 (−17.7--10.9) −15.6 (−19.9--11.3) −20.0 (−26.2--13.8) −15.5 (−17.3--13.7)c
  1. Abbreviations: OLS one leg standing, HG handgrip, SBE static back extension, SR sit and reach, BSR back scratch right arm over, BSL back scratch left arm over
  2. * p < 0.05 between sexes in the different tests
  3. aAdjusted for age and test center
  4. bAdjusted for sex and test center
  5. cAdjusted for age, sex, and test center
  6. d65–69 yr compared to 70–74 yr p = 0.04, 65–69 yr compared to 75–79 yr p ≤ 0.001, and 65–69 yr compared to 80–85 yr p ≤ 0.001
  7. e70–74 yr compared to 65–69 yr p = 0.04
  8. f75–79 yr compared to 65–69 yr p ≤ 0.001
  9. g80–85 yr compared to 65–69 yr p ≤ 0.001
  10. h65–69 yr compared to 75–79 yr p = 0.03
  11. i75–79 yr compared to 65–69 yr p = 0.03
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