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Table 3 Association between Participation Status and Key Health Characteristics comparing Participants (0) and Non-participants with Short Questionnaire (1) at Baseline (Valid Cases: n = 635)

From: Baseline participation in a health examination survey of the population 65 years and older: who is missed and why?

   P
(n = 299)
NP+
(n = 384)
Modell 1b Modell 2c
Self-report information n %/M (SD)a %/M (SD)a OR 95 %-CI p OR 95 %-CI p
Married and living together 682 53.0 46.9 0.78 0.58, 1.06 0.521 1.05 0.75, 1.46 0.792
School education years 671         
 < 10   39.9 56.5 Ref.    Ref.   
 10   26.7 23.5 0.62 0.42, 0.90 0.013 0.61 0.41, 0.90 0.013
 >10   33.4 20.0 0.42 0.29, 0.61 <0.001 0.51 0.35, 0.76 0.001
≥ 1 chronic disease 679 80.5 64.3 0.44 0.31, 0.62 <0.001 0.37 0.25, 0.54 <0.001
Quality of life (Total score) 653 78.7 (16.9) 67.1 (23.3) 0.97 0.96, 0.98 <0.001 0.98 0.97, 0.99 <0.001
 Mobility problems 679 28.6 51.8 2.68 1.95, 3.70 <0.001 2.07 1.47, 2.91 <0.001
 Self-care problems 677 10.1 29.2 3.67 2.37, 5.69 <0.001 2.48 1.55, 3.96 <0.001
 Problems performing usual activities 677 23.9 44.7 2.58 1.84, 3.60 <0.001 1.83 1.27, 2.62 0.001
 Pain/discomfort 662 59.4 69.7 1.57 1.14, 2.17 0.006 1.36 0.98, 1.91 0.069
 Anxiety/depression 659 18.7 34.9 2.34 1.62, 3.38 <0.001 2.03 1.39, 2.97 <0.001
Poly-pharmacy 678 55.7 47.9 0.73 0.54, 0.99 0.044 0.59 0.42, 0.81 0.001
Need for assistance 678 16.7 32.5 2.39 1.65, 3.47 <0.001 1.49 0.99, 2.26 0.056
  1. Abbreviations: 95 %-CI = 95 % confidence interval; M = mean; NP + = non-participants with the short questionnaire, i.e., individuals who declined study participation but completed the short questionnaire; OR = odds ratio; P = participants; Ref. = reference group; SD = standard deviation.
  2. a % for categorical variables. M (SD) for continuous variables
  3. b Unadjusted bivariate logistic regressions
  4. c Modell 1 + adjusted for age, sex, residential care
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