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Table 2 Group Differences Based on Multivariable Multinomial Logistic Regressions at Baseline (n = 1308)a

From: Baseline participation in a health examination survey of the population 65 years and older: who is missed and why?

  Analysis 1 Analysis 2
  P = reference group NP + = reference group
  NP+ NP- NR NP- NR
  RRR (95 %-CI) RRR (95 %-CI) RRR (95 %-CI) RRR (95 %-CI) RRR (95 %-CI)
Sex
 Men Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Women 1.41 (1.04, 1.93) 1.29 (0.94, 1.77) 1.10 (0.81, 1.49) 0.91 (0.67, 1.24) 0.78 (0.58, 1.05)
Age groups in years
 65–74 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 75–84 2.16 (1.49, 3.13) 1.59 (1.05, 2.40) 1.20 (0.84, 1.72) 0.74 (0.50, 1.09) 0.56 (0.41, 0.76)
 ≥ 85 2.49 (1.56, 3.97) 2.55 (1.43, 4.56) 1.67 (0.90, 3.11) 1.03 (0.66, 1.58) 0.67 (0.42, 1.09)
Citizenship
 German Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Non-German 1.58 (0.61, 4.14) 3.39 (1.39, 8.24) 9.41 (4.07, 21.75) 2.14 (1.10, 4.19) 5.95 (3.03, 11.69)
Residential care
 No Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Yes 7.99 (1.58, 40.35) 5.11 (0.98, 25.56) 3.72 (0.73, 18.95) 0.64 (0.39, 1.05) 0.47 (0.24, 0.92)
Deprived neighborhood
 No Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Yes 1.37 (0.95, 1.97) 1.46 (1.08, 1.97) 1.33 (0.87, 2.04) 1.07 (0.77, 1.48) 0.97 (0.67, 1.43)
  1. Abbreviations: 95 %-CI = 95 % confidence interval; NP + = non-participants with the short questionnaire, i.e., individuals who declined study participation but completed the short questionnaire; NP- = non-participants without the short questionnaire, i.e., individuals who declined study participation and completing the short questionnaire; NR = non-respondents, i.e., individuals who could not be reached during the recruitment period and who did not actively decline study participation; P = participants; Ref. = reference category; RRR = relative risk ratio.
  2. a Adjusted for clustering within neighborhoods
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