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Table 5 Description of ACP Tools employed in studies included in the review

From: A review of the implementation and research strategies of advance care planning in nursing homes

Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST), Hickman [28] The POLST is collected through conversations between patients, relatives, and health personnel about preferences for EoLC. It is form-based and designed to function as a directive for treatment, covering issues like A-C: CPR, medical intervention, antibiotics and nutrition in case of any changes in a patient’s condition.
Gold standards frame-work for care homes (GSFCH), Hockley [24], Livingston [26] The GSFCH is a quality improvement program with education modules that focus on ACP. The framework also aims to formalize the ACP using a form that includes open-ended questions about preferences for care and aims to determine whether a Lasting Power of Attorney is mentioned.
Let me talk, Chan & Pang [10] Let me talk is based in four meetings sequentially covering the following themes: life stories, illness narratives, life views and end-of-life care preferences. A semi-structured interview guide assists the facilitating nurses. The sessions aims to accumulate in a personal booklet documenting the patient’s individual life stories, health care concerns, preferences for life-sustaining treatment and potential decision-maker
Let Me Decide, Caplan [27], Molloy [11] This approach is based on conversations with patients and relatives, with the aim of completing a legally binding document which the “Let Me Decide: Health and Personal Care Directive” form is in Canada and Australia
Advance Directives Markson [25] Here Advance Directives entailed in depth discussions between physicians, patient, and relatives, and would likely be defined as ACP today.
Making Health choices, Silvester [30] Standardized contents of ACP discussions; should include in own words: Current health state, current goal, values & beliefs, future preferences; decision maker