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Table 3 Effects of the Home-Based Cognitive Behavioral Program on Secondary Outcomesa

From: Effectiveness of a home-based cognitive behavioral program to manage concerns about falls in community-dwelling, frail older people: results of a randomized controlled trial

  Control group Intervention group Modelb P- value Effect size
n = 171 n = 141
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Adjusted mean difference (95 % CI) P d
FES-IAB        
 Baseline 29.09 (9.3) 29.06 (9.7) - - -
 5-month follow-up 28.74 (9.2) 26.17 (9.6) −2.38 (−∞ − −1.12) .001 .27
 12-month follow-up 29.36 (10.3) 26.37 (10.4) −2.67 (−∞ – −1.37) .001 .29
GARS        
 Baseline 33.73 (9.3) 34.11 (9.4) - - -
 5-month follow-up 33.32 (8.9) 32.42 (8.9) −1.10 (−∞ – −0.07) .040 .10
 12-month follow-up 34.04 (9.3) 32.41 (9.4) −1.81 (−∞ – −0.77) .002 .17
GARS ADL        
 Baseline 18.70 (4.9) 18.47 (4.9) - - -
 5-month follow-up 18.28 (4.5) 17.37 (4.7) −0.62 (−∞ – −0.04) .039 .20
 12-month follow-up 18.69 (4.8) 17.60 (4.9) −0.83 (−∞ – −0.24) .011 .22
GARS IADL        
 Baseline 15.03 (4.9) 15.64 (5.1) - - -
 5-month follow-up 15.05 (5.1) 15.04 (4.8) −0.52 (−∞ – 0.08) .075 -
 12-month follow-up 15.35 (5.1) 14.82 (5.0) −1.01 (−∞ – −0.41) .003 .10
  1. FES-IAB falls efficacy scale-international avoidance behavior (range total scale 16–64; higher scores indicate more activity avoidance due to concerns about falls)
  2. GARS groningen activity restriction scale (range total scale 18–72; higher scores indicate more disability) GARS ADL groningen activity restriction scale — activities of daily living (ADL) subscale (range total scale 11–44; higher scores indicate more disability), GARS IADL groningen activity restriction scale—instrumental ADL subscale (range total scale 7–28; higher scores indicate more disability)
  3. 95 % CI = 95 % confidence interval (one-sided); SD = standard deviation; ∞ = infinity
  4. aResults of mixed-effects linear regression analyses (intention-to-treat)
  5. bAdjusted for baseline score of the outcome and level of concerns about falls, age, gender, perceived general health, and falls in the past 6 months
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