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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the sample as a function of subsequent deterioration in ability to perform any of BADL and IADL

From: Wrist fractures and their impact in daily living functionality on elderly people: a prospective cohort study

Variable BADL performance IADL performance
  No Deterioration (n = 508) Deterioration (n = 172) p-value No Deterioration (n = 510) Deterioration (n = 170) p-value
Age; mean(SD) 74.9(6.3) 81.3 (6.8) <0.0001 74.8 (6.3) 81.6 (6.5) <0.0001
Sex
 Female 450 (99) 153 (99) 0.895 460 (90) 143 (84) 0.030
Charlson Index
 0 68 (14) 10 (6) <0.0001 68 (13) 10 (6) <0.0001
 1 123 (25) 21 (13)   124 (25) 20 (12)  
 ≥2 306 (61) 135 (81)   308 (62) 133 (82)  
Current medication use
 None 73 (15) 9 (5) <0.0001 75 (15) 7 (4) <0.0001
 1-3 medications 341 (67) 99 (58)   340 (67) 100 (59)  
 ≥4 medications 92 (18) 63 (37)   93 (18) 62 (37)  
Educational level
 Illiterate 7 (2) 6 (3) 0.009 7 (1) 6 (4) 0.017
 Able to read & write 225 (45) 90 (54)   227 (45) 88 (53)  
 Primary education 205 (40) 63 (37)   205 (41) 63 (38)  
 Secondary education 46 (9) 8 (5)   48 (9) 6 (4)  
 University qualifications 21 (4) 1 (1)   19 (4) 3 (1)  
Previous Falls
 No 385 (77) 107 (63) <0.0001 386 (76) 106 (63) 0.003
 Yes without fractures 105 (21) 47 (27)   99 (20) 53 (32)  
 Yes, with fracture 11 (2) 17 (10)   19 (4) 9 (5)  
Performed treatment
 Surgery 91 (18) 18 (11) 0.022 94 (19) 15 (9) 0.003
Referral for rehabilitation       
 No 369 (73) 136 (80) 0.066 365 (72) 140(83) 0.003
Patient-reported measures of HRQoL and functionality: mean (SD)
SF-12: PCS
 Pre fall 49.2 (8.6) 39.1 (10.9) <0.0001 48.7 (9.1) 40.7 (11.1) <0.0001
 Difference (post-pre) −6.9 (10.6) −9.8 (11.1) 0.007 −7.3 (10.7) −8.7 (11.1) 0.173
SF-12: MCS
 Pre fall 52.8 (8.5) 48.6 (11.0) <0.0001 52.9 (8.6) 48.5 (10.6) <0.0001
 Difference (post-pre) −0.9 (10.8) −4.5 (13.0) 0.003 −1.1 (10.8) −3.8 (13.2) 0.031
Quick DASH
 Pre fall 5.8 (10.7) 20.6 (20.2) <0.0001 6.3 (11.0) 19.3 (20.8) <0.0001
 Difference (pre-post) −18.7 (22.1) −29.9 (27.3) <0.0001 −19.7 (22.5) −26.9 (27.4) 0.002
Lawton
 Pre Fall 7.4 (1.4) 4.7 (2.8) <0.0001 - -  
 Difference (post-pre) −0.03 (1.16) −1.0 (2.1) <0.0001 - -  
Barthel
 Pre fall - -   99 (5) 87 (20) <0.0001
 Difference (post-pre) - --   −1.0 (5.9) −17.0 (22.1) <0.0001
  1. Values in cells are frequency (percentage) unless otherwise stated. For variables with missing data frequencies do not add up to N. SD: standard deviation. Basic activities of daily living (BADL) were assessed through the Barthel Index; BADL was considered to have deteriorated if post-fall scores were <90 points or a pre-post score decrease of more than 10 % has occurrred. Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were assessed by the Lawton Scale; IADL was considered to have deteriorated when post-fall scores of <5 points were observed or a pre-post score decrease of 2 points occurred. For binary variables only one category is presented