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Table 2 Results from baseline (T0), 3 months (T1) and 6 months (T2) for exercise and control group

From: Long-term effects of a 12 weeks high-intensity functional exercise program on physical function and mental health in nursing home residents with dementia: a single blinded randomized controlled trial

Variable T1: 12 weeks Exercise Control Difference between groups at T0, T1 and T2 P-value T2
T2: 6 months   
Means (SD)/ Adjusted means (CI) Within group change T1T2 Means (SD)/ Adjusted means (CI) Within group change T1T2
Berg T0 34.3 (14.4) −1.5 (−3.1–0.2) 35.3 (13.7) −2.2 * (−4.2--0.3) 1.0  
T1 38.4 (36.8–40.1) 36.2 (34.7–37.6) 2.3  
T2 37.0 (35.0–38.9) 33.9 (32.0–35.9) 3.0 0.031*
CST T0 6.0 (3.1) −0.4 (−0.9–0.3) 6.2 (2.9) −0.3 (−1.1–0.3) 0.2  
T1 7.1 (6.6–7.7) 6.5 (6.0–7.1) 0.6  
T2 6.8 (6.2–7.4) 6.2 (5.4–6.9) 1.7 0.175
NWS T0 0.5 (0.2) −0.02 (−0.04–0.02) 0.5 (0.2) −0.01 (−0.1–0.03) 0  
T1 0.49 (0.46–0.51) 0.49 (0.44–0.54) −0.001  
T2 0.47 (0.44–0.51) 0.46 (0.43–0.5) 0.01 0.685
Barthel T0 13.5 (3.5) −0.6 (−1.3–0.1) 13.4 (3.6) −0.8 (−1.6–0.03) 0.1  
T1 13.7 (13.0–14.3) 12.9 (12.3–13.5) 0.8  
T2 13.0 (12.3–13.8) 12.1 (11.2–12.9) 1.0 0.082
MMSE T0 15.5 (0.6) −1.0* (−1.9–0.2) 15.7 (4.9) −1.4* (−2.4--0.5) 0.2  
T1 15.4 (14.5–16.3) 15.3 (14.6–16.1) 0.1  
T2 14.4 (13.5–15.2) 13.9 (12.9–14.9) 0.5 0.492
NPI sum T0 6.1 (6.1) 0.03 (−1.3–1.3) 4.8 (4.6) 0.7 (−0.8–2.3) 1.3  
T1 4.8 (3.7–5.8) 5.6 (4.1–7.1) −0.9  
T2 4.8 (3.8–5.8) 6.4 (5.1–7.7) −1.6 0.059
Affective T0 1.2 (1.5) −0.04 (−03–02) 0.8 (1.3) −0.1 (−0.3–0.4) 0.4  
T1 0.9 (0.6–1.2) 1.0 (0.7–1.4) −0.1  
T2 0.9 (0.6–1.1) 1.1 (0.8–1.4) −0.2 0.257
Agitation T0 1.7 (2.1) 0.04 (−0.5–0.5) 1.3 (1.7) 0.2 (−0.3–0.8) 0.4  
T1 1.3 (0.9–1.7) 1.8 (1.3–2.3) −0.5  
T2 1.4 (1.0–1.8) 2.0 (1.5–2.5) −0.7 0.045*
Apathy T0 0.6 (0.8) 0.08 (−0.03–0.3) 0.4 (0.7) 0.15 (−0.1–0.3) 0.2  
T1 0.3 (0.2–0.4) 0.4 (0.2–0.6) −0.1  
T2 0.4 (0.3–0.6) 0.5 (0.3–0.7) −0.1 0.688
QUALID T0 18.4 (6.1) −0.2 (−1.6–1.2) 17.7 (5.4) 1.1 (−0.2–2.6) 0.7  
T1 18.1 (16.8–19.3) 17.7 (16.4–19.0) 0.4  
T2 17.8 (16.7–19.0) 18.8 (17.3–20.2) −0.9 0.326
Cornell Scala T0 4.9 (4.8) 0.8 (−0.8–2.4) 4.9 (4.2) 1.4* (0.1–2.6) 0  
T1 4.0 (2.6–5.4) 3.8 (2.8–4.7) 0.2  
T2 4.8 (3.8–5.8) 5.1 (4.0–6.3) −03 0.668
  1. Results at T0 are given as mean (SD). Results at T1 and T2 are estimated means (95 % confidence interval) or mean difference (95 % confidence interval) derived from the linear mixed model
  2. BBS Berg Balance Scale, CST Chair stand test, NWS Normal walking speed, BI Barthel Index, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, NPI Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire
  3. T0 = baseline, T1 = 12 weeks, T2 = 6 months
  4. *p < 0.05