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Table 3 Treatment effect of reablement versus usual care estimated with mixed-effects modelsa

From: Reablement in community-dwelling older adults: a randomised controlled trial

  Reablement group Control group Adjusted effect size Treatment effect, mean difference (95 % CI) p-value Overall treatment effectd, mean difference (95 % CI) p-value
Mean (95 % CI) Mean (95 % CI)
Activity performance e (COPM) (1–10, 10 is best performance)       1.5 (0.4-2.6) 0.01
 Baseline 2.6 (2.1-3.2) 2.8 (2.2-3.3) - - - - -
 3 monthsb 6.9 (6.1-7.8) 5.5 (4.7-6.3) 0.8 1.5 (0.3-2.8) 0.02 - -
 9 monthsc 6.3 (5.0-7.6) 4.8 (4.1-5.5) 0.7 1.4 (0.2-2.7) 0.03 - -
Activity satisfaction e (COPM) (1–10, 10 is best satisfaction)       1.2 (0.1-2.3) 0.04
 Baseline 2.6 (2.0-3.2) 3.3 (2.6-4.0) - - - - -
 3 monthsb 6.7 (5.9-7.6) 6.0 (5.3-6.8) 0.7 1.0 (−0.3-2.2) 0.13 - -
 9 monthsc 6.5 (5.2-7.8) 5.2 (4.5-5.9) 0.9 1.4 (0.1-2.7) 0.03 - -
Mobility and balance f (Timed up and Go) (seconds)       −0.1 (−3.8-3.5) 0.96
 Baseline 24.6 (20.1-29.2) 23.3 (16.4-30.1) - - - - -
 3 monthsb 19.6 (14.2-25.1) 17.9 (14.0-21.8) 0.1 −0.4 (−4.3-3.5) 0.82 - -
 9 monthsc 19.9 (14.7-25.0) 18.1 (13.4-22.8) 0.1 0.3 (−3.7-4.3) 0.88 -  
Grip strengthe (Jamar dynamometer), right hand (kilograms)       −0.4 (−2.4-1.5) 0.66
 Baseline 19.6 (16.2-23.0) 20.6 (16.6-24.5) - - - - -
 3 monthsb 20.1 (17.3-22.9) 20.6 (16.4-24.7) 0.1 −0.3 (−2.5-2.0) 0.81 - -
 9 monthsc 18.6 (15.4-21.8) 19.5 (15.3-23.7) 0.1 −0.6 (−2.9-1.7) 0.59 - -
Grip strength e (Jamar dynamometer), left hand (kilograms)       −1.1 (−3.5-1.3) 0.36
 Baseline 19.8 (16.1-23.5) 18.0 (14.6-21.5) - - - - -
 3 monthsb 20.8 (16.9-24.7) 20.0 (16.7-23.2) −0.1 −0.1 (−3.1-2.8) 0.92 - -
 9 monthsc 19.4 (15.9-23.0) 20.4 (15.1-25.6) −0.3 −2.2 (−5.2-0.9) 0.16 - -
Physical fitnessfg (COOP/Wonka) (1–5, 1 is best)       −0.2 (−0.6-0.2) 0.34
 Baseline 4.4 (4.2-4.7) 4.2 (4.0-4.5) - - - - -
 3 monthsb 4.0 (3.6-4.3) 3.9 (3.5-4.3) −0.2 0.0 (−0.4-0.5) 0.94 - -
 9 monthsc 3.8 (3.4-4.2) 4.1 (3.8-4.5) −0.6 −0.4 (−0.9-0.1) 0.09 - -
Feelingsf (COOP/Wonka) (1–5, 1 is best)       0.0 (−0.5-0.5) 0.90
 Baseline 2.4 (1.9-3.0) 2.3 (2.0-2.6) - - - - -
 3 monthsb 2.3 (1.8-2.7) 2.2 (1.7-2.7) 0.0 0.0 (−0.5-0.6) 0.89 - -
 9 monthsc 2.2 (1.7-2.6) 2.1 (1.7-2.5) −0.1 0.0 (−0.6-0.6) 1.00 - -
Daily activitiesf (COOP/Wonka) (1–5, 1 is best)       −0.4 (−0.8-0.1) 0.14
 Baseline 3.5 (3.1-3.9) 3.2 (2.9-3.5) - - - - -
 3 monthsb 2.7 (2.3-3.1) 2.9 (2.5-3.2) −0.6 −0.4 (−0.9-0.2) 0.21 - -
 9 monthsc 2.5 (2.0-3.0) 2.8 (2.3-3.2) −0.6 −0.4 (−0.3-0.5) 0.22 - -
Social activitiesf (COOP/Wonka) (1–5, 1 is best)       0.3 (−0.3-0.8) 0.35
 Baseline 2.4 (1.9-2.9) 2.9 (2.4-3.4) - - - - -
 3 monthsb 2.3 (2.0-2.7) 2.2 (1.7-2.6) 0.6 0.4 (−0.2-1.0) 0.23 - -
 9 monthsc 2.3 (1.7-2.8) 2.3 (1.9-2.7) 0.4 0.1 (−0.5-0.8) 0.65 - -
Change in healthf (COOP/Wonka) (1–5, 1 is best)       0.0 (−0.3-0.3) 0.78
 Baseline 2.4 (2.0-2.7) 2.1 (1.8-2.5) - - - - -
 3 monthsb 2.8 (2.5-3.1) 2.6 (2.4-2.9) 0.0 0.1 (−0.2-0.5) 0.40 - -
 9 monthsc 3.0 (2.9-3.2) 3.1 (2.9-3.4) −0.4 −0.1 (−0.4-0.3) 0.66 - -
Overall healthf (COOP/Wonka) (1–5, 1 is best)       −0.2 (−0.6-0.2) 0.31
 Baseline 3.0 (2.7-3.4) 2.9 (2.6-3.2) - - - - -
 3 monthsb 2.8 (2.5-3.0) 2.9 (2.5-3.2) −0.3 −0.2 (−0.6-0.2) 0.36 - -
 9 monthsc 2.8 (2.4-3.1) 2.9 (2.6-3.3) −0.4 −0.2 (−0.6-0.2) 0.40 - -
  1. CI Confidence interval
  2. aAdjusted for baseline values
  3. bTreatment effect is the estimated mean group difference at the 3-month follow-up
  4. cTreatment effect is the estimated mean group difference at the 9-month follow-up
  5. d Overall treatment effect is the estimated mean group difference for the whole trial period of 9 months
  6. e Positive values favour the reablement group
  7. f Negative values favour the reablement group