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Table 4 Hazard ratios of association of living alone with mortality in stratified Cox regression analyses (mortality up to 31 Dec 2011)

From: Mortality of older persons living alone: Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies

   Adjusted for sex and age Adjusted for all variablesa Interaction
  N HR 95 % CI p HR 95 % CI P p
Male 935 2.53 (1.39–4.61) 0.0023 2.36 (1.24–4.49) 0.009  
Female 1618 1.15 (0.61–2.16) 0.664 1.14 (0.58–2.22) 0.705 0.106
Single, divorce, widowed 644 1.84 (1.06–3.18) 0.029 2.26 (1.24–4.10) 0.008 0.115
Married 1909 0.77 (0.28–2.11) 0.605 0.83 (0.30–2.31) 0.721  
Higher end housing 1780 1.50 (0.55–4.13) 0.430 1.32 (0.47–3.72) 0.600  
1–3 room public housing 773 1.61 (0.98–2.67) 0.063 1.67 (0.98–2.85) 0.058 0.600
<75 years 2221 2.69 (1.55–4.67) 0.0004 2.03 (1.09–3.78) 0.025  
≥75 years 332 0.78 (0.37–1.63) 0.509 1.09 (0.50–2.40) 0.825 0.377
No IADL–BADL disability 1926 2.57 (1.44–4.61) 0.0015 2.12 (1.09–4.14) 0.027  
IADL–BADL disability 627 1.00 (0.51–1.99) 0.993 1.21 (0.60–2.46) 0.595 0.305
  1. IADL: Instrumental activity of daily living; BADL: Barthel Activity of daily living
  2. aAge, sex, housing type, marital status, history of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, chronic lung disease, stroke, kidney failure, IADL–ADL disability, and depressive symptoms (GDS ≥ 5), as appropriate