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Table 2 Mortality (2004–2011) in SLAS cohort by living arrangement and other characteristics at baseline

From: Mortality of older persons living alone: Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies

  No (%) or mean (SD) Person–years Dead (N = 227) Alive (N = 2384) P value Mortality rate per 1,000 p–y Univariate HR (95 % C.I.)
Total 2553 8062 227 (8.7) 2384 (91.3)   28.2   
Age (mean, SD) 66.04 (7.7)   73.27 (9.4) 65.35 (7.1) <0.0001    
 <75 2221 7014 131 (57.7) 2138 (89.7) <0.0001 18.7 1.00  
 75–84 282 884 68 (30.0) 221 (9.3)   76.9 3.88 (2.90–5.20)
 85+ 50 165 28. (12.3) 25. (1.0)   169.7 8.11 (5.37–12.25)
Female 1618 5095 99. (43.6) 1549. (65.0) <0.0001 19.4 1.00  
Male 935 2967 128 (56.4) 835 (35.0)   43.1 2.36 (1.81–3.07)
Housing type: Higher end public and private 1780 5525 116 (51.1) 1706 (71.6) <0.0001 21.0 1.00  
 Low end (1–3 room) public 773 2537 111 (48.9) 678 (28.4)   43.8 1.51 (1.16–1.98)
No. medical comorbidities :  ≤1 815 2631 46 (20.3) 787 (33.0) <0.0001 17.5 1.00  
 ≥2 1738 5432 181 (79.7) 1597 (67.0)   33.3 2.06 (1.49–2.85)
History of Hypertension: No 1128 3549 74 (32.6) 1085 (45.5) 0.0002 20.9 1.00  
 Yes 1425 4514 153 (67.4) 1299 (54.5)   33.9 1.54 (1.16–2.03)
History of Diabetes: No 2114 6653 164 (72.3) 1995 (83.7) <0.0001 24.7 1.00  
 Yes 439 1409 63 (27.8) 389 (16.3)   44.7 1.77 (1.33–2.37)
History of Chronic Lung Disease: No 2461 7781 211 (93.0) 2301 (96.5) 0.011 27.1 1.00  
 Yes 92 268 16 (7.1) 78 (3.3)   59.7 2.19 (1.31–3.64)
History of Stroke: No 2459 7759 207 (91.2) 2303 (96.6) <0.0001 26.7 1.00  
 Yes 94 303 20 (8.8) 81 (3.4)   66.0 2.79 (1.76–4.43)
History of Heart Disease: No 2326 7313 180 (79.3) 2191 (91.9) <0.0001 24.6 1.00  
 Yes 227 730 47 (20.7) 186 (7.8)   64.4 2.50 (1.81–3.45)
History of Kidney Failure: No 2536 8009 225 (99.1) 2368 (99.3) 0.715 28.1 1.00  
 Yes 17 53 2 (0.9) 16 (0.7)   37.7 1.25 (0.31–5.02)
IADL–BADL % (at least 1 item) disability: No 1926 6003 98 (43.2) 1872 (78.5) <0.0001 16.3 1.00  
 Yes 627 2059 129 (56.8) 512 (21.5)   62.6 3.06 (2.35–3.99)
Depressive symptoms (GDS > =5): No 2217 6892 178 (79.1) 2078 (87.4) 0.0005 25.8 1.00  
 Yes 336 1141 47 (20.9) 300 (12.6)   41.2 1.39 (1.01–1.92)
Single, divorce, widowed: No 1909 6049 1802 (7.7) 141 (62.4)   23.3 1.00
 Yes 644 1997 578 (24.3) 85 (37.6) <0.0001 42.6 1.93 (1.47–2.53)
Living alone: No 2364 7324 198 (89.6) 2166 (92.9) 0.044 27.0 1.00  
 Yes 189 567 23 (10.4) 166 (7.1)   40.5 1.60 (1.04–2.46)