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Table 3 Collected variables

From: Functional and cognitive impairment prevention through early physical activity for geriatric hospitalized patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

1. Baseline measurements: Outcomes measures will be collected on the test day written in an information sheet.
1.1. Individual characteristics:
Demographic variables Information regarding the age and the gender of the patients will be collected.
Functional status Reflects the ability of the patient for performing activities of daily living, as well as the capacity to relate with others and participating in society. It will be measured with the Barthel Index.
Functional capacity SPPB, Gait velocity, Handgrip, dual tests.
Cognitive function Highlights cognitive impairments that might interfere with self-care and independence in elderly patients. In the present study, we will use the Mini Mental State Examination, and the Trail Making Test as executive function parameters, as well as the Confusion Assessment method for delirium evaluation, and the Geriatric depression Scale of Yesavage as an indicator of psychosocial status.
Caregiver burden Will be measured through Zarit scale.
Nutritional status Indicates malnutrition risk in elderly patients. In addition to the weight and height data, information related to factors that increase the risk of malnutrition will be collected. These will be measured via MNA test.
Quality of Life Evaluates the individual’s social well being, due to its easiness in administration, validity and reliability, the EuroQol-5D is one of the questionnaires with largest diffusion and validity.
Geriatrics syndromes Characterised by the simultaneous presence of illnesses, clinical and functional conditions that can usually lead to incapacity. The specific presence of immobility, incontinence, constipation, pressure ulcers, cognitive impairment, delirium, depressive tendencies, falls, insomnia, visual impairments, hearing impairments, malnutrition, dysphagia, and pain.
Comorbidity Will be measured by means of Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatrics (CIRS-G).
1.2. Intervention-measurements
Upper and lower strength Maximal isometric force of knee extension, handgrip and hip flexion.
Dynamic muscle power on variable resistance exercise machine. Will be measured through a T-force system device, connected to the variable resistance machine, so it is able to assess the velocity and power of every single lift.
Kinematic variables of human movement. Gait patterns of the patients will be recorded by a triaxial accelerometer while performing the GVT. This small device traces acceleration force, speed and angular position data in the three planes.
2. Follow-up: Institutionalization, survival, functional impairment, quality of life, health care resources use (e.g. GP visits emergencies, hospital admission, medicine consumption).