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Table 2 Primary and secondary outcomes at baseline and post-training. Data are presented as the mean (± SD)

From: Effects of short term elastic resistance training on muscle mass and strength in untrained older adults: a randomized clinical trial

Variables Group Mean Effect
Baseline Post Δ% Effect size between group Time Group × Time
ULFFM (g) TG 4.2 (1.1) 4.4 (1.0) 4.7 0.1 0.28 0.19
CG 4.9 (1.3) 4.9 (8.9) 0.0
LLFFM (g) TG 12.6 (2.7) 12.5 (2.6) 0.0 0.03 0.92 0.88
CG 13.5 (4.0) 13.5 (3.8) 0.0
Handgrip (Kgf) TG 32.8 (9.5) 33.7 (9.1) 2.9 0.9 0.12 0.42
CG 35.1 (10.7) 35.4 (10.8) 0.8
PT 60°/s (N.m) TG 118.5 (41.0) 121.6 (39.7) 2.6 3.0 0.29 0.56
CG 124.8 (38.3) 125.7 (36.9) 0.7
PT 120°/s (N.m) TG 92.7 (27.9) 96.9 (29.7) 4.5 4.1 0.01a 0.38
CG 100.3 (32.0) 102.3 (32.0) 2.0
  1. PT peak torque; ULFFM upper limb fat-free mass; LLFFM lower limb fat-free mass
  2. a intra-group difference (post – pre) to TG (p = 0,01)