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Table 5 Scores for women in the social, psychological and physical domains according to the three frailty stages

From: Fried phenotype of frailty: cross-sectional comparison of three frailty stages on various health domains

  All Non-frail Pre-frail Frail P-value
n = 4,065 n = 2,122 n = 1,442 n = 501  
Social domain
Social network type (%) family dependent 23.2 22.9 22.2 27.5 0.111
  locally integrated 38.8 41.0 37.7 32.9
  local self-contained 22.3 21.6 23.7 20.8
  wider community focused 8.4 9.6 8.3 3.6
  private restricted 7.3 5.0 8.0 15.2
Informal care use in past 12 months (%) yes, and still present 18.7 5.1 23.9 61.2 <0.001
  no 79.2 93.2 73.2 36.5
Loneliness (De Jong-Gierveld, 0–11)a   3.2 (±3.4) 2.3 (±2.9) 3.8 (±3.6) 5.5 (±3.8) <0.001
Psychological domain
Psychological distress (K-10, 10–50)   17.0 (±6.7) 14.2 (±4.3) 18.3 (±6.2) 25.4 (±8.1) <0.001
Mastery (Pearlin & Schooler, 7–35)   25.0 (±5.7) 26.9 (±4.8) 24.2 (±5.5) 19.5 (±5.7) <0.001
Self-management (SMAS-S, 1–6)   4.1 (±0.7) 4.3 (±0.6) 4.0 (±0.7) 3.5 (±0.8) <0.001
Physical domain
Chronic diseases (%) diabetes 16.5 10.4 20.2 32.5 <0.001
  stroke/cerebral haemorrhage or infarction (past 12 months) 1.6 0.8 2.0 3.5 <0.001
  myocardial infarction (ever) 7.3 3.5 8.9 19.1 <0.001
  other heart conditions (CHF or AP) (past 12 months) 8.1 3.9 11.0 18.1 <0.001
  cancer (ever) 18.7 16.4 20.1 24.4 <0.001
  asthma or COPD (past 12 months) 15.9 11.3 18.6 26.6 <0.001
  hip or knee arthrosis (past 12 months) 52.0 37.3 64.0 75.5 <0.001
  chronic joint inflammation (past 12 months) 20.1 7.8 29.0 44.0 <0.001
  back problems (incl. hernia) (past 12 months) 24.0 13.9 30.0 47.1 <0.001
Number of chronic diseases (%) 0 26.7 38.6 16.7 4.8 <0.001
  1 30.9 37.4 26.2 16.6
  2 21.0 16.5 26.8 23.4
  ≥3 21.5 7.5 30.3 55.3
GARS IADL-disability (7–28)   10.9 (±5.2) 8.1 (±2.2) 12.1 (±4.9) 19.1 (±5.2) <0.001
OECD disability 1 or more disabilities (%) 35.8 12.4 50.0 94.6 <0.001
  1. aPreferable score is underlined