Skip to main content

Table 4 Scores for men in the social, psychological and physical domains according to the three frailty stages

From: Fried phenotype of frailty: cross-sectional comparison of three frailty stages on various health domains

  All Non-frail Pre-frail Frail P-value
n = 4,619 n = 3,366 n = 999 n = 254  
Social domain
Social network type (%) family dependent 22.0 21.1 23.3 28.4 0.211
  locally integrated 41.1 43.5 36.0 28.9
  local self-contained 21.1 19.9 24.4 23.7
  wider community focused 8.1 8.9 6.2 3.9
  private restricted 7.8 6.6 10.1 15.1
Informal care use in past 12 months (%) yes, and still present 10.6 3.2 23.6 59.4 <0.001
  no 88.7 96.2 75.6 40.2
Loneliness (De Jong-Gierveld, 0–11)a   2.8 (±3.1) 2.3 (±2.8) 3.9 (±3.5) 5.1 (±3.7) <0.001
Psychological domain
Psychological distress (K-10, 10–50)   15.0 (±6.0) 13.2 (±3.8) 18.5 (±7.0) 25.3 (±8.4) <0.001
Mastery (Pearlin & Schooler, 7–35)   26.4 (±5.5) 27.6 (±4.7) 23.9 (±5.8) 18.6 (±5.4) <0.001
Self-management (SMAS-S, 1–6)   4.1 (±0.7) 4.2 (±0.6) 3.8 (±0.7) 3.3 (±0.8) <0.001
Physical domain
Chronic diseases (%) diabetes 17.0 13.8 24.6 30.6 <0.001
  stroke/cerebral haemorrhage or infarction (past 12 months) 1.8 1.0 3.3 7.5 <0.001
  myocardial infarction (ever) 17.1 13.7 23.9 36.4 <0.001
  other heart conditions (CHF or AP) (past 12 months) 8.0 5.1 14.4 21.5 <0.001
  cancer (ever) 19.0 17.1 22.9 29.0 <0.001
  asthma or COPD (past 12 months) 15.2 11.0 24.5 32.4 <0.001
  hip or knee arthrosis (past 12 months) 31.7 25.8 44.8 56.2 <0.001
  chronic joint inflammation (past 12 months) 10.9 7.0 18.8 32.2 <0.001
  back problems (incl. hernia) (past 12 months) 18.8 14.3 28.4 39.8 <0.001
Number of chronic diseases (%) 0 31.0 38.0 14.0 5.5 <0.001
  1 33.2 35.2 29.6 21.7
  2 18.8 17.2 23.4 21.7
  ≥3 17.0 9.6 33.0 51.2
GARS IADL-disability (7–28)   11.4 (±5.2) 9.9 (±3.7) 14.3 (±5.8) 20.8 (±5.6) <0.001
OECD disability 1 or more disabilities (%) 23.8 11.7 47.6 92.4 <0.001
  1. aPreferable score is underlined