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Table 3 Scores for the total population in the social, psychological and physical domains according to the three frailty stages

From: Fried phenotype of frailty: cross-sectional comparison of three frailty stages on various health domains

  All Non-frail Pre-frail Frail P-value
n = 8,684 n = 5,488 n = 2,441 n = 755  
Social domain
Social network type (%) family dependent 22.5 21.8 22.7 27.8 0.049
  locally integrated 40.1 42.5 37.0 31.5
  local self-contained 21.6 20.6 24.0 21.8
  wider community focused 8.2 9.2 7.4 3.7
  private restricted 7.6 6.0 8.9 15.2
Informal care use in past 12 months (%) yes, and still present 14.3 3.9 23.8 60.6 <0.001
  no 84.3 95.1 74.2 37.7
Loneliness (De Jong-Gierveld, 0–11)a   3.0 (±3.3) 2.3 (±2.8) 3.8 (±3.5) 5.3 (±3.7) <0.001
Psychological domain
Psychological distress (K-10, 10–50)   15.9 (±6.4) 13.6 (±4.0) 18.4 (±6.6) 25.3 (±8.2) <0.001
Mastery (Pearlin & Schooler, 7–35)   25.8 (±5.6) 27.3 (±4.8) 24.1 (±5.6) 19.2 (±5.6) <0.001
Self-management (SMAS-S, 1–6)   4.1 (±0.7) 4.2 (±0.6) 3.9 (±0.7) 3.4 (±0.8) <0.001
Physical domain
Chronic diseases (%) diabetes 16.8 12.5 22.0 31.8 <0.001
  stroke/cerebral haemorrhage or infarction (past 12 months) 1.7 0.9 2.5 4.9 <0.001
  myocardial infarction (ever) 12.6 9.8 15.2 25.0 <0.001
  other heart conditions (CHF or AP) (past 12 months) 8.0 4.6 12.4 19.2 <0.001
  cancer (ever) 18.8 16.8 21.3 25.9 <0.001
  asthma or COPD (past 12 months) 15.5 11.1 21.0 28.5 <0.001
  hip or knee arthrosis (past 12 months) 41.2 30.2 56.2 69.1 <0.001
  chronic joint inflammation (past 12 months) 15.2 7.3 24.8 40.0 <0.001
  back problems (incl. hernia) (past 12 months) 21.3 14.1 29.3 44.7 <0.001
Number of chronic diseases (%) 0 29.0 38.3 15.6 5.0 <0.001
  1 32.1 36.0 27.6 18.3
  2 19.8 16.9 25.4 22.8
  ≥3 19.1 8.8 31.4 53.9
GARS IADL-disability (7–28)   11.2 (±5.2) 9.2 (±3.3) 13.0 (±5.4) 19.7 (±5.4) <0.001
OECD disability 1 or more disabilities (%) 29.4 12.0 49.0 93.9 <0.001
  1. aPreferable score is underlined