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Table 1 Characteristics of participants according to CESD-R score status (<16 vs. ≥ 16), N = 668*

From: Elevated circulating vascular cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) is associated with concurrent depressive symptoms and cerebral white matter Hyperintensities in older adults

Baseline Characteristics CESD-R scorea P Value
<16 (n = 489, 73 %) ≥16 (n = 179, 26 %)
Demographics    
Age, mean (SD), y 77.9 ± 5.3 78.4 ± 5.5 0.44
Gender    0.071
Men 193 (39.5) 57 (31.8)
Women 296 (60.5) 122 (68.2)
White Race 397 (81.2) 138 (77.0) 0.58
Educational level, mean (SD), y 14.98 ± 5.1 14.97 ± 8.1 0.11
Health behaviors    
Body mass index, kg/m2,b    0.31
<25 148 (30.3) 62 (34.6)
25-29.9 208 (42.5) 78 (43.6)
≥30 133 (27.2) 39 (21.8)
Current smoker 283 (57.9) 102 (57.) 0.84
Alcohol use (Endorsing ≥2 drinks per week) 136 (27.8) 35 (19.6) 0.03
Physical activity scorec    0.024
0- 66 139 (28.4) 68 (38.0)
66.01-124 164 (33.5) 59 (33.0)
124.01-559 181 (37.0) 49 (27.4)
Health conditions    
Comorbidity index 2.8 ± 1.4 3.8 ± 1.8 <.0001
Hypertension 374 (76.5) 147 (82.1) 0.075
Hyperlipidemia 285 (58.3) 103 (57.5) 0.54
Diabetes 84 (17.2 42 (23.5) 0.066
Previous Stroke 39 (8.0) 27 (15.1) 0.007
Coronary artery disease 67 (13.7) 40 (22.4) 0.0044
Congestive Heart failure 16 (3.3) 18 (10.1) 0.0004
Cognitive impairment (MMSE < 24)d 42 (8.6) 30 (16.8) 0.0026
Medications    
Any cardiovascular medication 320 (65.4) 134 (74.86) 0.024
Psychotropic Medication 30 (6.1) 16 (8.94) 0.21
Biomarkers measures    
C-Reactive Protein, mean (SD), mg/L 3.8 ± 12.3 5.3 ± 14.8 0.19
Interleukin-6, mean (SD), pg/mL 3.8 ± 7.5 4.2 ± 5.7 0.046
Soluble ICAM-1, mean (SD), ng/mL 258 ± 75 273 ± 87 0.064
Soluble VCAM-1, mean (SD), ng/mL 1176 ± 417 1239 ± 451 0.036
  1. sVCAM-1 Soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1, sICAM-1 Soluble Inter Cellular Adhesion Molecule-1. *Missing values = 12 from 680;‡Global test: χ2 or Fisher’s exact test for binary variables; analysis of variance for continuous variables.
  2. aCESD-R, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Revised
  3. bBody mass index is calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared
  4. cPhysical activity tertiles measured using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly
  5. dMini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) cut off point for cognitive impairment