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Table 3 Correlates of pain with depression

From: Association between pain, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and physical function in dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author N Pain: prevalence Depression: prevalence Correlates of pain with depression Quality of study
Bartels 2003 [ 8 ] 1836 Pain 27% Depression 32% SOR 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3-2.0) 4
Cipher 2004 [ 4 ] 234 Persistent pain 72% Depression (GDS-15) mean 7.8 (SD 3.12) Correlations with GMPI ‘pain and suffering’ r=0.13 (p<0.05) with GDS-15 depression 7.5
D’Astolfo 2006 [ 44 ] 140 Pain 64% (musculoskeletal pain 40%) Depression 16% SOR 1.3 (95% CI: 0.5-3.5) (analyses in sample of no dementia-severe dementia) 7
Gruber-Baldini 2005 [ 45 ] 328 High pain 21% Depression 23% SOR 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.5) (in n=328) 8.5
Kunik 2005 [ 34 ] 99 Pain mean (PGC-PIS) 2.4 (SD 1.2) Depression (HAM-D) mean 7.7 (SD 6.1) r=0.49 (p ≤0.01) 8.5
Leong 2007 [ 35 ] 225 Pain 44%; chronic pain 34% Depression 61% SOR 3.2 (95% CI: 1.8-5.9) 8.5
Lin 2011 [ 46 ] 112 Observed pain 37% (PAINAD >= 2) Depression 5% OR=1.2 (95% CI: 0.19-7.26) 12
Morgan 2012 [ 47 ] 171 Worst pain mean 1.91 (SD 1.53) Depression (HAM-D) mean 6.16 (SD 5.28) Baseline: r = 0.30 (n.s.) 9.5
Shega 2005 [ 48 ] 115 Any current pain self-report 32%, caregiver report 53% Depression (GDS-15) mean 3.1 (SD 2.7) For self-report pain SOR 1.5 (95% CI: 0.6-3.7) For caregiver pain report: SOR 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2-1.1) with patient depression 9.5
Shega 2010 [ 49 ] 5549 Moderate or greater pain: 35.8% Depressed mood 37.3% OR=1.69 (95% CI: 1.18-2.44) with depressed mood (Adjusted for demographics) 9
Williams 2005 [ 43 ] 331 Pain 21%, in nh 23%, in rc/al 20% (self-report for subgroup mmse>10 was: 39% and 25%) Depressed 23% OR=2.3 (1.1-4.8) and AOR=2.9 (1.2-7.2) (Adjusted for: sex, race, age, cognitive status, number of 10 comorbidities, impairments of 7 activities of daily living) 10
  1. Abbreviations: SOR, Self-Calculated Odds Ratio; SD, Standard Deviation; r, correlation coefficient; AOR, Adjusted Odds Ratio; OR, Odds Ratio; n.s., not significant; GMPI, Geriatric Multidimensional Pain and Illness Inventory; PGC-PIS, Philadelphia Geriatric Centre Pain Intensity Scale.