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Table 2 Measurements of pain, neuropsychiatric symptoms and physical function

From: Association between pain, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and physical function in dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Measurement of pain Measurement of neuropsychiatric symptoms Measurement of function
First author Rating scale Method of detection Rating scale Method of detection Rating scale Method of detection
Ahn 2013 [ 36 ] MDS pain severity scale, combining pain frequency and pain intensity Self-report, if not possible staff report based on proxy reports MDS subscales; wandering-item, aggression behaviour scale (ABS), challenging behaviour profile (CBP) agitation subscale Patient self-report, proxy and professional MDS-ADL long form (7 items) Staff observation
Bartels 2003 [ 8 ] No use of rating scale Data collection instrument (3-month period), raters unknown MDS for depression Medical records MDS (number of ADLs) Medical records
Black 2006 [ 39 ] GMPI pain and suffering subscale Part of neuropsychological evaluation by a licensed clinical geropsychologist -GDS-15 “-26 dysfunctional behaviours with scores “1-7” Part of neuropsychological evaluation by a licensed clinical geropsychologist PRADLI Part of neuropsychological evaluation by a licensed clinical geropsychologist
Cipher 2006 [ 41 ] GMPI Part of neuropsychological evaluation by a licensed clinical geropsychologist and each instrument was administered after interviewing the resident, nursing staff and family members GLDS, 19 categories with scores 1-7 Part of neuropsychological evaluation by a licensed clinical geropsychologist and each instrument was administered after interviewing the resident, nursing staff and family members Medical records, preceding 6 to max 26 Months GLDS Part of neuropsychological evaluation by a licensed clinical geropsychologist and each instrument was administered after interviewing the resident, nursing staff and family members
D’Astolfo 2006 [ 44 ] No use of rating scale Medical records, preceding 6 to max 26 months No use of rating scales   No use of rating scale Medical records Ambulatory status: independent, requires assistance, wheel chair (or bedridden n=1)
Gruber-Baldini 2005 [ 45 ] PGC-PIS, score ≥ 2 Rating by supervisory staff member CSDD CMAI Rating by supervisory staff member MDS; activities of daily living scale, SMOI Rating/observation by supervisory staff member
Kunik 2005 [ 30 ] PGC-PIS, item on level of pain in previous week, scores 1-6 Interview with patient and proxy by trained interviewer/research assistant CMAI HAM-D NPI (subdomains delusion/hallucinations) Interview with patient and proxy by trained interviewer/research assistant - -
Leonard 2006 [50] MDS pain burden using a 4-level composite score based on pain frequency and intensity - MDS (Physical aggression: MDS item ‘others were hit, shoved, scratched, sexually abused’; Depression: MDS score≥3 on sum of 9 items, e.g. ‘being sad’, ‘making negative statements’, ‘persistent anger with self or others’, ‘pained facial expressions’. (At least once in week before)) - - -
Leong 2007 [ 35 ] PAINAD for non-communicative patients Interviews with patient and staff member by professionals for communicative patients Depression with GDS-15 or STAI Anxiety with Cornell Self-report or staff report AAS Not reported
Lin 2011 [ 46 ] PAINAD-Chinese version Observation immediately following instances of routine care by principal investigator and research assistant No use of rating scales Medical records and observations by professional No use of rating scale Medical records and observation by professional
Morgan 2012 [ 47 ] PGC-PIS worst pain item Not reported CMAI aggression subscale CMAI non-aggressive physical agitation subscale HAM-D depression Not reported - -
Norton 2010 [ 42 ] PPQ, intensity item, 10–14 day baseline Primary CNA and data used from medical records RMBPC-NH, selection of 3 need driven behaviours, BEHAVE-AD Primary CNA and unit staff PSMS Nurses and trained research assistants
Shega 2005 [ 48 ] VDS, 1 item on presence and severity of pain ‘right now’ Interviews with patients and caregivers by trained research assistant GDS-15 CMAI Interview patient and proxy KATZ IADL Interview patient and proxy
Shega 2010 [ 49 ] VDS, 5 point, ‘pain past 4 weeks’ Interviews with patient by trained research assistant Mental Health screening questionnaire; 5-item and 6 point scale Interview with patient by trained research assistant OARS/IADL; 3 point scale Interview patient by trained research assistant
Torvik 2010 [ 48 ] VRS, 4 point, ‘pain right now’ Patient self-report DQoL, 29-items on 5 domains: self-esteem, aesthetics, positive affect, negative affect, belonging Not reported Barthel Self-report and medical records
Tosato 2012 [ 3 ] InterRAI LTCF InterRAI LTCF questions and observation of behaviour, any type of pain or discomfort of the body in previous 3 days by trained (research) staff InterRAI LTCF 5 behavioural symptoms, previous 3 days Not reported MDS ADL Hierarchy Scale Data recorded by study physicians
Volicer 2009 [ 37 ] MDS-RAI pain frequency (item J2a) Combination of physical examination, patient history, observation, consultation caregiver and medical records by staff MDS Depression Rating Scale MDS item J1e for delusions MDS item J1i for hallucinations Combination of physical examination, patient history, observation, consultation caregiver and medical records by staff - -
Volicer 2011 [ 51 ] MDS Combination of physical examination, patient history, observation, consultation caregiver and medical records by staff MDS items I1ee, E1a, E1d, E1f, E1b, E1i, E1l, E1m for depression MDS for delusions and hallucinations MDS items B5b, E1b, E4aa, E4da for agitation Combination of physical examination, patient history, observation, consultation caregiver and medical records by staff - -
Williams 2005 [ 43 ] PGC-PIS, score ≥2, and 0–10 pain numeric rating scale Registered nurses or licensed practical nurses and interview with overseeing supervisor CSDD, score ≥7 CMAI, any behaviour at least weekly Rating by care supervisors, registered nurses and licensed practical nurses MDS-ADL, APAS SMOI Rating by care supervisors, registered nurses and licensed practical nurses
Zieber 2005 [ 38 ] DS-DAT, and a 7-point pain rating scale Trained facility nurses, palliative care nurse consultants PAS Trained facility nurses - -
  1. Abbreviation: MDS, Minimum Dataset; ADL, Activities of Daily Living; GMPI, Geriatric Multidimensional Pain and Illness Inventory; GDS-15, Geriatric Depression Scale-15 short version; PRADLI, Psychosocial Resistance to Activities of Daily Living Index; GLDS, Geriatric Level of Dysfunction Scale; PGC-PIS, Philadelphia Geriatric Centre Pain Intensity Scale; CSDD, Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia; CMAI, Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory; SMOI, Structured Meal Observational Instrument; HAM-D, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; NPI, Neuropsychiatric Inventory; PAINAD, Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia; STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; AAS, Adjusted Activity Scale; PPQ, Proxy Pain Questionnaire; CNA, Certified Nursing Assistant; RMBPC-NH, Revised Memory and Behaviour Problems Checklist-Nursing Home; BEHAVE-AD, Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer’s disease; PSMS, Physical Self Maintenance Scale; VDS, Verbal Descriptor Scale; KATZ, Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living; IADL, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; OARS/IADL, Older Americans Recourses and Services/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; VRS, Verbal Rating Scale; DQol, Dementia Quality of life; APAS, Albert Patient activity Scale; DS-DAT, Discomfort Scale - Dementia of Alzheimer Type; PAS, Pittsburgh Agitation Scale.